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. f 1984 .OjUlljlj :ljM\ii\ 

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.(O.J) jjU _,b l^jn .y_j* Cj\y_J -17 

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.^eUJI jiJ- i**. JTji»J .^*-i*JI *-i-J1 C* J<H <J^ J ~ 21 

. r 1981 ^jUroj* 
:«=»jjx_> .Oj^li o^lj J-ii*J .lij*-"" ^b" Oli-i- 1 -22 

.^ 1 980 tyjl i . .. _■ <■ ijljlli y-iltji 

4_l,jUi jijji :s_^i*ii .^^Ji ^>Ji j^e jji*; .j^*-. o'^j -23 

f 1965 tJ jjjij «y»u 
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. f 1977 i jjUlljlj :i,»U)l 
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, f 1968 ifi M oijjli .L»i 

i 1 ti j^>i jjLill jlj* j_4>- jj*3.,5jji)l J^jiJUll ol^jj -27 

. r 1968 ujjvjJi ^tifjijij :oj^ 
jij 3_^ :oj^. <o-* S>e ,j .j^i*; ls L»„Jl otj^J -28 



. f 1947 i^>iyij l^-jilij JilfcJi ii^) 
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. r 1979 iJijJi jb :o iri< .j^**^ pp-jJi j^e jjivi 
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ij^Ji 4j3ili rojji, ^W J-i«)i jjI ja*. jji*: i >ji-Ji j*>j)i 

.(O.J) 

j^k. ChjjJI v-»- ^i^iJI j<i .^^.BJI ^1^* o* y-jL^ 1 S u "4 

—»I306 i*oi>Ji «juUi :»j»lili ^AHjyli jAijli 
OjjLa f 5L_JI j^e jj*»j i<i J -»j ! Jl j)--»i» ^i liiUI ^j+i -5 

. f 1976-64 ^uifUJ 4*^1 4*.j«ji jb :5j»uii totj^i 
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f 1979 i^tiSSl i.UI 4^*11 U^l :5_j.UJl ^JdI* f^-JI V 
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. f l976 ii^JLJl.;!!^!^ 

J_L»i .J J*1»J l(/i ljUJl ^Ij,! C„ ,5^,1 C^l yl^J -12 

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. f 1966 .ojUli 
i j.5U^I ^3*11 oljjii. : jifci t Ik .jj*?JI UjUJl yii -50 

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^iUlJ ,JuJI jIj ioj^ <3 k. jlke jjiAJI ^* J*»l ,5*1*3 c Jj»^JI 

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, f 1987 .at-jii *— y :^ijH .2k. jjUjj>Ji 
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. f 1963 

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. f 1982 4 aL,jji i— >. ^^^ ,2k. oiku 1>1 »ji 

l£ l*JI a *d, u 1 ^ ^ J* 3 ^ J*J 'V>dl >■*! £,>*** ~ 57 

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^a,^ j^ivi .wu- 0,1 .uw j j^sli ki^Jij ,^-11 -58 
,«ijlj ^uji yrfLJi ,/k« ^uii . 1 k i6o m, ju; o*-»j ftJi 
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■<•=••■') ■•=•!* 'J^ 1 

~ju* j Ij j j jU ->'-> : ^j>* •'#^ >JI ^j 51 * ■'i , ■ ll * I, r*~ ~ 60 

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f 1990 l( JB)l jIj IJJ-J .pp-jll J*« -»■-> jdi*3 .^i^" 
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, r 1986 iS^jji ^iflijij 

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jlj Icjjuj-j 1 1 k. lijtjJI LaLI j^i*j .j-^* o'j^J jv- 4_ 38 

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(18)AlanRey(1979). 

La. Terminolpgje: Noms et Notions - 

Collections- que-sous-jen! Paris, 
(19) Eve, Clark (1993). 

The Lexicon In Acquisition, Combridge 

University. 
(20)H.Felber(l984). 

Terminology Manual, General Information 

Programme and UNIS1ST, UNESCO, 

International Information Center for 

Terminology (Infoterm, Paris/ Wien) 
(21) Juan Sager (1990), 

A practical Course in Terminology 

Processing, 

Amsterdam / Philadelphien. 
(22)Sanford Schane(1973). 

Generative Phonology, Newj 



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2.1nfluence recipoque : II ya entre eux 
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« reproduction vegetative » , « humeur vitree » 
« humeur aqueuse» , «photo Synthese» 
j JljJl o'-S * JL» . « reproduction sexuee » 



<3) "Le dictionnaire des sciences",-*!*)! ^**ll Ul 
: jtsJl y*2\ JLc ( Pression osmotique) p^i. Jij*j 

Pression osmotique : Difference de pression 
qui existe de part et d'autre d'une membrane 
semipermeable separant un liquide pur A d'un 
meme liquide contenant un corps dissous B(...) 
la membrane est dite semi-permeable car elle 
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« Sur les relations entre terminologie et : O'j-W 
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: Le Petit Robert jl*o« j jl>J 

Ecran : 

n.m.(1316 ; neerl.scherm « paravent ») 

1°) Panneau servant a garantir de l'ardeurtrop 

vive d'un foyer 
2°) (1664) Surface sur laquelle se reproduit 

I 'image d'un objet. 
L'ecran d'une console d'ordinateur 



Dictionnaire de P.A.O de Didier Don 
(Ed.Ophrys, 1986) 

n.m 

Domaine : gestion d'ecran 

Syn : console de visualisation 

Def .1°- partie d' un terminal, d'un visuel ou 
d'un micro-ordinateur sur lequel s'affichent des 
donnees alphanumeriques ou graphiques 

2°-Ensemble des donnees alphanumeriques ou 
graphiques prdsenties a un instant donne sur un 
ecran de visualisation 

Note : par extension, le terme designe souvent 
le visuel qui constitue l'ensemble du dispositif 
d'affichage des donnees 

Angl.l - display devise, display unit visual 
display unit 

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FlCHE TERMINOLOGIOUE BILINGUE 



ENTREE LANGUE - SOURCE 



Acc61erateur | Science et Vie n° 925, p :38 



oct. 1994 1 generique | 



Pour accdlerer des particules electriquement chargees- qu'il s'agisse de protons ou d'&ectrons-, il faut les 
soumettre a un champ dlectrique ou a une onde electrique. tous les accelerateurs sont batis sur ce principe. Un 
champ magnetique est 6galement mis en oeuvre afin de focaliser les faisceaux de particules et de courber leur 
trajectoire pour reduire la taille de l'accelerateur (les accelerateurs circulates). 



Particules electriquement charges 

Champ electrique 

Onde electrique 

Champ magnetique 

Faisceaux de particules focaliser, courber 



PHYS. NUCL 

AUTO. 

CHIM. 

CONSTR 

PHOTO 



Specif. 

- Cyclotron 

- Synchrtron 

- Betatron 
Anal. 

- Surf 
Ant. 

- Ralentisseur 



ENTREE LANGUE - CIBLE 



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INCENDIES SPONTANES : DE LA CIIIMIE ET NON DE LA MAGBE 



Pas de fum6e sans feu dit la sagesse populaire, et 
pas de feu sans allumette ajoutent les esprits sages. 
Quant a cette allumette quelle qu'en soit la nature, dire 
que le feu ne prend pas tout seul, Beaucoup avaient 
failli l'oublier cet &i avec les combustions 
"spontanees" de la ferme de Seron, dans les hautes 
Pyrenees. 

Pour qu'il y ait une flamme, il faut que trois 
elements soient reunis un corps reducteur 

(combustible) un oxydant (l'oxygene de l'air le plus 
souvent), une temperature eievee. La plupart du temps 
la reaction est lente : la rouille du fer, le vert-de-gris sur 
le cuivre, la decomposition des feuilles, sont en fait des 
combustions, mais etaiees sur une telle durte que la 
chaleur produite se dissipe sans cesse. 

Avec d'autres produits comme le bois, le papier, le 
charbon, la combustion peut passer du rythme lent, 
imperceptible a l'ceil, au rythme rapide avec flamme, a 
condition d'etre amorcee par une forte temperature : la 
flamme d'une allumette, la chaleur du soleil concentred 
par une loupe, un fil de metal chauffe par l'eiectricite, 
etc. sans cet apport de chaleur, aucun des combustibles 
habituels ne passe tout seul a l'oxydation rapide qui 
etant exothermique, s'entretient d'elle-meme ensuite 

Rares sont les corps simples qui rtagissent 
immediatement a l'oxydation des la temperature 
ambiante: on peut citer le phosphore dans l'air, le 
sodium dans l'eau ou dans l'air, le fer en poudre dans le 
chlore par contre, il existe une immense varied de 
produits composes qui rtagissent violemment les uns 
sur les autres, d'autres en general explosifs instables se 
decomposent tous seul, avec un grand degagement de 
lumiere et de chaleur, a la moindre variation de 
temperature ou de pression: nitroglycerine, iodures 
d'azote et d'argent, etc. 

A l'etat purement naturel, il n'existe pratiquement 
qu'une seule combustion spontanee : ceile des 
phosphures dTiydrogdne libels dans les marais (feux 
follets) ou autour de certains gisements petroliers. Si on 
ajoute ITiomme a la nature, on peut trouver des cas ou 
d'accumulation locale de produits a oxydation lente 
degage assez de chaleur pour que la vitesse de reaction 
augmente jusqu'a passer a l'inflammation pure et 
simple: stocks de laines non degraissees, entassement 
de chiffons huileux, grands tas de charbon, stocks de 
pailles humides. 

Dans la ferme des Pyrenees, aucune de ces 
conditions n'etait pr6sente, ce qui excluait un processus 
d'auto-inflammation. Par contre, il existe de nombreux 
precedes chimiques permettant de declencher un feu 
violant a la moindre etincelle, ou meme sans etincelle 
du tout ou avec un retard plus ou moins long. Ainsi, un 



combustible normalement peu inflammable, comme le 
tissu d'un drap, peut Stre rendu tres facilement 
combustible si on lui ajoute un corps oxydant, c'est-a- 
dire renfermant de l'oxygene en exces : chlorate de 
sodium (desherbant), chlorate de potassium (engrais), 
nitrates de sodium ou de potassium (engrais), par 
morceau de papier passe au chlorate de sodium, par 




La combustion « spontanee » du potassium. Une simple 
goutte d'eau (1) suffit a provoquer la combustion tres 
vive d'un morceau de potassium (2). Cette propriite est 
utilisee par les magiciens. 



exemple s'enflamme tres vite par simple contact 
avec une cigarette, ou meme une allumette mal eteinte, 
etaies sur un tissu le potassium peut declencher une 
flamme en presence d'eau, ou meme d'air tres humide. 
D'autres melanges, generalement a base de nitrates et 
de carbone, s'enflamment dans l'air d£s que la 
temperature devient un peu eievee : le voisinage d'un 
appareil de chauffage ou de cuisson peut suffire. On 
peut aussi, sur un tissu traite au chlorate, ajouter un 
peu d'iodure d'azote mouilie : en sechant, Piodure 
devient instable, et une simple vibration ou la chute 
d'une poussidre declenchent la reaction et 
l'inflammation rapide du tissu. 

Le phosphore dissous dans le bisulfure de carbone 
constitue une allumette retard tres efficace : d£s que le 
bisulfure de carbone, solvant industriel classique, s'est 
evapore, le phosphore s'enflamme, entraTnant la 
combustion du produit sur le quel il a ete etaie. 

Les formules chimiques permettant de declencher 
un feu sont innombrables, et elles reposent toujours sur 
le meme principe : augmenter la proportion d'oxygene 
en mettant deja un oxydant, ce qui facilite beaucoup 
l'inflammation du combustible, et apporter un melange 
instable qui reagira des que certaines conditions seront 
atteintes : humidite ou secheresse, choc ou pression, 
variation de temperature, et ainsi de suite. Pas de 
surnaturel la-dedans, bien au contraire : un peu de 
chimie, un peu de ruse, et rien de plus. 

Renaud de LA TAILLE 



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ROLE DE L'EAU DANS LA DISSOLUTION DES COMPOSES IONIQUES 

Le caractere polaire de la molecule d'eau permet d'interpre'ter en partie le role de l'eau dans la dissolution 
des composes ioniques, l'eau joue un double role : 

" destruction du reseau cristailin du compose solide, 

■ solvatation des ions liberes 
La destruction du reseau cristailin est fortement endothermique : elle ndcessite un important apport 
d'energie car la cohesion du reseau cristailin est grande. Chaque ion Iib6r6, par exemple Na + ou CI" dans le 
cas de la dissolution du chlorure de sodium, cree un champ electrique dans l'espace qui l'entoure. Les 
molecules d'eau, polaires, s'orientent convenablement dans ce champ et entourent l'ion : c'est la solvatation 
de l'ion. 

La solvatation des ions est fortement exothermique : elle d6gage une importante quantity d'energie. 
Lors de la mise en solution, les deux phenomenes ne correspondent pas a deux Stapes distinctes, ils ont lieu 
simultanement. Ainsi on peut dire que le reseau cristailin est d&ruit parce que les molecules d'eau en 
entourant les ions r&luisent consideiablement les forces Slectriques entre ces ions. 

Le bilan energ&ique global de la dissolution (destruction du reseau cristailin et solvatation des ions) peut etre 
soit exothermique, soit endothermique. Parfois il est pratiquement athermique. 
Analyse contextuelle appliquee a certaines U.T 



U.T 


Contexte 


Descripteurs 


Type du 
contexte 


Equivalent 
arabe 


caractere 
polaire de la 
molecule 
d'eau 


Le caractere polaire de la molecule d'eau permet 
d'interpreter en partie le role de l'eau dans la 
dissolution des composes ioniques. 
Dans la mise en solution des eaux ioniques, l'eau 
joue un double role : 

- destruction du reseau cristailin du 

compose solide. 

- solvatation des ions liberes 


- Dissolution 

- Composes 

ioniques 

- Miseen 

solution 

- Destruction 

du reseau 
cristailin 

- solvatation 


Explicatif 


frill iiijir 




La destruction du reseau cristailin est fortement 
enxothermique : elle necessite un important 
apport d'energie 


- Exothermi 

que 

- Energie 


Explicatif 






Chaque ion libere, par exemple Na+ ou CI" dans 
le cas de la dissolution du chlorure de sodium, 
cree un champ electrique dans l'espace qui 
l'entoure. Les molecules d'eau, polaires, 
s'orientent convenablement dans ce champ et 
entourent l'ion : c'est la solvatation de l'ion. 


- Dissolution 

- Champ 

electrique 

- Molecules 

d'eau 

- ion 


Definitoire 


dji^\ <J 



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Electrostatique 



E electrisation 
Espece d'tfectricite 
Loi de coulomb 
EVecteur champ electrique 
Forces dlectriques 
Lignes de champ 



- Champ dlectrique 



Potentiel Electrique 



Travail de la force 

croissant 
lissant 



~ potentiel £ 
Volume EquipoterffSe'r 
surface equipotentielle 



Arbre du domaine de Pelectrostatique 

4 iiu*JI 



1 -Dominique Tassel, traductions litteraires et traductions scolaires, le francais aujourd'hui. 
A.F.E.F. numero 95 sept 91 p.2 1 

2- Jean Delisle, l'analyse du discours comme methode de traduction. Ottawa coll.traduc .81 p: 64 

3- Christine Durieux , Fondement didactique de la traduction technique. Coll. Traduc. 
1988.p.7. 

4- Ibid p:24 

34^ 1993. 6 £i>Ull aI*. VJ\y!\ jJk^li J-i liU^UJI ^ -5 

6- Claude P6dard, la traduction technique, Hnguatech Montreal. 86. P :86 p.9 

7- Jean Rene Ladmiral, elements de traduction philosophique, langue francaise sept 1981 p :28 

8- Rotilav Kocourek, terminologie et efficacite de la communication : criteres. Meta vol 30 
n°2 1985 p.l 19-128 

9- 1 0- Christine Durieux opcite p.25 

1 1-Samira Barrada, Yousif Elias, traduire le discours economique.1992 p. 15 



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objets qui se pretent a la repetition », et un peu 
plus loin, de rechercher des « relations repetables 
et, a travers elles, d'atteindre et de designer des 
etres scientifiques qui constitueront les objets », 
les concepts, (p.27) 

C'est ainsi que la motilite, la division, la 
forme, la cellule, sont autant d'Stres scientifiques 
abstraits les uns que les autres. II en est de meme 
pour la composition chimique, la structure, 
('organisation spatiale et, rhormone. La cellule, 
Fhormone ou la regulation sont des etres qui 
n'existent que par la combinaison de relations, des 
protocoles ou des process reguliers qui sont 
permis d'atteindre, et de d6finir par la meme 
occasion, ces differents etres. 

La derive des concepts : 

Une des autres facettes du concept est sa 
derive. Selon la nature et le nombre des relations 
retenues pour deTinir le concept, celui-ci peut 
deriver de differentes manieres allant du concret a 
l'extinction. Quand les process de rencontre ou 
d'atteinte de l'objet sont 'rudimentaires', le 
concept derive vers le sens commun, le concret. 
L'exemple de la forme de la cellule ou encore de 
l'organisation spatiale de Phormone nous 
paraissent tellement evidentes ; on les juge comme 
telle, spontanement. Mais en fait, c'est par 
reference a un etalon de mensuration ou a un 
systeme de refraction, couples a un protocole de 
mesure que Ton juge de la forme ou de 
l'organisation. Or ces procedures, et les relations 
qu'elles sous-entendent sont tellement 
'rudimentaires' qu'elles passent inaper9us. Et en 
parallele nous avons le sentiment de la halite, du 
concret de Petre ainsi reconnu : la cellule ou 
I'hormone. 

Certes, il faudrait nuancer ceci parce que le 
jugement spontane , la derive au concret n'est pas 
evidente pour tous ni pour tous les objets. Et, il en 



est de meme de la derive du concept dans le sens 
inverse, vers l'extinction, lorsque les relations qui 
le deftnissent sont de plus en plus limitees ou 
encore lorsque des relations contradictoires se 
manifestent. La troisieme possibilite s'impose, en 
etablissant des Hens entre les concepts : c'est leur 
classification, leur echelonnement. Ainsi, le 
concept de 'potentiel d'action' en physiologie 
s'homologuerait a celui de 'quantum/ en physique 
quantique ou encore au *bit, dans les theories de 
1' information. Ce dernier concept serait cependant, 
eu egard a la place de l'information dans la culture 
scientifique contemporaine, la formulation la plus 
commode, la plus integratrice 

Des pratiques au sein de l'enseignement 

Une analyse de ia pratique des enseignants 
en matiere de traduction dans nos lycees, serait 
certainement souhaitable, voire incontournable. 
Des observations de classe, ainsi que des 
discussions avec, les professeurs stagiaires nous 
avaient permis de relever un ensemble de 
soupcons qui auraient tendance a corroborer les 
avances que nous formulerons comme suit: 

Par la nature des objectifs qu'il trace a ses 
cours, les documents qu'il proposerait a ses eifeves 
; par la nature de PexpHcation qu'il correierait aux 
concepts constituant le texte qu'il propose, I'adepte 
de la premiere conception, outre de vehiculer -une 
conception naive de la pratique d'eiaboration des 
concepts en science, traduirait ces derniers en 
reference a un. champ perceptible et puiserait 
synonyme dans le sens commun. Les risques de 
contamination du concept par les connotations en 
vigueur dans le sens commun, des lors, se 
manifesteront certainement de plus belle. 1 

Les consequences peuvent 6tre certainement 
multiples, mais je prefere m'arreter a ce niveau 
et, pour finir, tendre la main a celut ou a celle qui 
souhaiterait partager cette experience et l'enrichir. 



Plusieurs recherches en didactique des sciences ont tendance a considerer les interferences entre la traduction 
donnee a un concept et sa connotation sociale sont des causes, associees & d'autres, qui pourraient expliquer les 
conceptualisations 'non conformes' que se font les eleves Voir -i ce propos; 



Quelques reperes bibliographiques 

■ G. Bachelard, 1934, le nouvel esprit scientifique, Paris : PUF 

■ G. Canguilhem, 1 983 (5e"d), Etudes dTiistoire et de philosophic des sciences; Pari ; Vrin 

■ J. Piaget, 1950, introduction a I'epistemologie gen&ique, Paris: PUF 

■ J.UUmo, 1 969, la pensee scientifique modeme; Paris: Flammarion 



Le statut du concept, une source potentielle de problemes 

AU PRATICIEN DE LA TRADUCTION DANS LE CHAMP DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT 



Mostafa El Alaoui ( * } 



Introduction 

La tendance epistemologique contemporaine 
fait de Pinterdisciplinarite 1'outil methodologique 
le plus sur pour aller de I'avant dans la recherche 
scientifique. C'est certainement en etant 

conscient de ce fait que mon collegue et ami le 
chef de departement de traduction m'ait invite a 
intervenir dans ce seminaire. Je Ten remercie 
vivement mais je dois lui avouer que, je ne sais 
pas ce que vous mettriez derriere le titre que vous 
avez donne a ce seminaire « al moustalah al 
mouahhad» et trouverais deja des difficultes a 
vouloir le traduire en francais. Parlerai-je de 
concept « unifie » ou « unificateur » ou devrais-je 
plutot parler de traduction unanime et unique a un 
concept donne? Bref, je ne voudrais pas 
m'aventurer dans des problematiques qui me sont 
inconnues et laisserais le soins a ceux qui vivent le 
probleme de Pinterieur pour en expliciter de 
maniere pointue les facteurs qui sont en jeu. Ma 
contribution a ce debat voudrait ce limiter au 
concept, tout court, pour montrer que, le statut 
epistemologique qui lui est accorde par le praticien 
de la traduction dans le champ de l'enseignement 
peut etre a l'origine de plusieurs des difficultes 
qu'il rencontre dans sa pratique. 

Le temps qui m'est imparti ne me permet 
pas de diversifier mes approches, ni de traiter des 
differentes dimensions du probleme. Je retiendrais 
ici une approche historico-epistemologique ou 
serait mises en avant deux tendances 
epistemologiques : positives d'un cote et 
constructives de l'autre, et me limiterai a quelques 
unes des 'caracteristiques' ou « etre constitutifs » 
du concept scientifique pour montrer comment 
peuvent changer les pratiques lorsque les 
interpretations, les conceptions, les cadres 
epistemologiques changent. 



Le concept entre l'existence 
ontologique et le reel objectif : 

Une premiere source potentielle de 
problemes est le lien du concept avec le reel. Le 
concept represente-t-il reality ontologique ou a 
l'inverse est, une realite qui se confond avec les 
procedures mises en ceuvre pour Patteindre ? 

Ce sont la deux conceptions du concept 
totalement differentes. La premiere considere en 
effet que, les concepts correspondent a des realites 
concretes, touchables, palpables ; des realites 
offertes par la nature, existantes independamment 
du sujet, de ses conceptions, de sa culture. Ainsi 
Pon parlera de la cellule comme etant une entite 
concrete. Et qu'on decrit comme etant pourvue 
d'une forme, rectangulaire chez les vegetaux, 
spherique ou ovale chez les animaux, douee de 
conductivity electrique, particulierement bien 
manifeste chez les cellules nerveuses et ayant 
d'autres caracteristiques ou propriete comme la 
motilite, la division, etc... Comme Pon parlerait de 
'hormone' comme etant une entite qui existe dans 
Porganisme et qui est douee d'un certain nombre 
de proprietes particulieres. Le probleme se pose 
toutefois a attribuer l'existence ou a chosifier le 
concept de regulation et est plus ou moins 
facilement accepte comme etant une abstraction, 
une emanation de Pesprit. Et pourtant, et la 
cellule,et Phormone et la regulation sont autant de 
concepts, d'objets de la science Pun que l'autre. 
Non parce qu'ils s'offrent a nous comme des 
entites ontologiques, mais par le caractere 
operatoire qu'ils sous-entendent. C'est le principe 
de la deuxieme conception du concept. 

Dans cette conception, tout concept fait 
corps avec un precede regulier, une experience 
repetable par 'tout un chacun' . La science, comme 
le disait il y a assez longtemps Ullmo 
(1969,p25), « s'impose de reconnaitre, dans la 
diversite mouvante des apparences sensibles, des 



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• Total scattering cross ^ ^j) ^lu^I ^ti. 
section 

* Section efficace de 
dispersion totale 

■ Mass energy absorption ^j, y^j ^ui.1 J*U, 

cofficient 
« Coeficientd' absorption 

d'energie massique 

: pl^lj yA^AJI WUS£j **o» «»5l<tt* J**" 

■ Effective resonance integral j^ ^i j^ 

■ Integral, effective de 



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J»LOJ li»j .pression de bulle -lk^I JjUaS "(^.JUill) 
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< Positron decay . My Jt)U ^ l 

Disintegration avec 
emission de positron 

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• Radiation accident ^ ^^ 

■ Accident par rayonnement - 

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(j^'j *^ OO**^ 1 U* 1 ^' UiJ* j^>^llj .fl*i^l OjJ-cu 






• Effective multiplication 

constant 
■ Facteur de multiplication 

efFectif 



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I'abdomen - 


4 



yljtJ WI& I^^kJI r _jJUJI BjU j^. j_i, i^lMI pilndl yliU (*) 



*MV*tf ^U"Ut 



Poplar 2 :j» j^ji^V 1 J^' f^ 1 * 11 <>•* '**-» 



(JL. ^> ^ r li*-. ^ 6^ SaJIUJI JiL>iJt W- 
l it -.\ , U£ \j_yr Jj'- 6j£ i **£*% *±»^' JiUiJI ***-«- 

aceae ji aceesSl*^ 
Abietacees=Pinacees : ^ *l*aiJI- 



iK^i ^ l+sjj}^ (armoise^^jAll oli o-i* 3* artemisia- 
oS^ll il-aiJi <>* ^j* t^ 1 Asteracees 



JJ->IDI o^L-Ull 6« ****'j *^ J a3U j ^-j r ■** " 



(abscisse) jJlwu ^Ijj! ^ 

Vis CjJJ ^jiJI jJt-ll ■ 



jJJwdl 



32- abele-peuplier blanc - 



34-abietinae-abietinees layS 



44-abrotanum=artemisia- 
abrotone;aurone; herbe royale 



45-abrupt- decousu 



48-abscissed branch - branche 
d'abscisse 



^1 r ^l oL5[ r J* - 



abisse Ja» abysse ^j* 11 j-U"^- 
*1=^) 



-Jul, c-iji» i-SJji 'J*- > 700 °J i 6000 J' ^ ^ 
^j ,-,iilj*»- -Animaux abyssaux :^jsl\ ^Ua-oli 



des profondeurs <> y^Jl J* abyssale cw ,>&*» - 



(p-ii.) t. 



57-abutilon -abutilon 



58-abyss-abisse ;abime ;gouffre 
O^ 1 J* 



59- abyssal animals - animaux 
des profondeurs 



60-abyssal fauna -faune 
abyssale 



y*^Jij yiii P-i obi! f j* - L-i^U^Jai-. 



IL-oiJIj ftjjl f-l oLul pJ* 



-A-iyj JiLu J| i*U j ^Jk-ftt 



61 acacia -acacia - U-ASi 



62-acacia farnesiana -acacia de 
farnese - y-ij» Jai- 



65-acanthium- acanthium 
(= anopordon)- 6>-5l 



^Wt^MK 



oU»>^U 


Clk*!) 


i*i*> 


•j 


y>j Anoure y> JjjjJIj **-JjiJl j ■>>»■>» jtfi acaude ~lkrv.li 

572 Jj OuaO }Ui Jj*^* -lk_a. 


76- acaudal -acaude - ^Lj'i 




7 


^ijLe t tSjilj = Accessoire 
Supplementaire = jUi- 


80- accessory -accessoire- 


8 


acclimatisation Jjl> acclimatation ^» ^yJl r- 1 ^-^' 


9 1 -acclimatization - 
acclimatisation 

(... Jfti\ SJiSl) pJib 


9 


9 


Silk. iUuSj = accomodatioti(.|ii..|i) >_i-* 


93 -accomodation of eye- 
accomodation de 1'oeil 

<jJjJl j *ijlk» 





acephales Jjj Acephales 


96-acephala -acephales oLwiyi 


1 


WO^cW 


97-aceraceae -aceracees ou 
acerinees (<*^ *i;-ai) ijjJLi 


2 


<LiX»%j"!)I <JJJj ji* j »Jirw\t 


100-Accessory fruit -fruit 
accessoire iJUl Sjji 


3 


( ^J*JI ^1 ^Lil f j* 


107-achillea -achillee -ULSi 


10 


4 


: Petit Robert^ .-u-* 

acicula(lat.)=petite aiguille 

lSj^I =aciculaire Jjl^sil Jh oil J-»i y>) 


1 1 4- aciculu - acicule -ijjj 


5 


acinosedm; jl*^ "^ j ^jic Jjj l _ J £M*:(.pJ>.p) .^u** - 
l^ tie ^-Jj (acinus) 


121-acinose ; acinous-acineux 
J J5L5JI LjjSJl S^jSlI 3^1) ^ 

(jjjUI ijisu 


6 


gland acinose Jjj acinous gland :(.pi>.p) >_u-* - 
glande en grappes 


1 22- acinose gland- glande 
conglomeree; glande en 
grappes- 


7 


Limitatifs Jjj facteurs limitants 


4069-limiting factors - facteurs 
limitatifs 


221 


8 


membrane limitatrice Jju membrane limitative 


4070-1 imiting membrane - 
membrane limitatrice 


9 



*$4**ft&U*4H 



gllwJI 






4072-1 inear arrangement - 
amenagement lineaire 



Jjg ^j} 



repiquer Ja> repiquer 
Harrap's Shorter ^** v_u*>- 
repiquer,(d): toprick out,to plant out (seedling) 



4075-line out(to)-repiquer en 
Hgnes 



Jjlillj transect^* ( _ r - ^i^iJl -lk^il :i_i>_y<jJl v-°- " 

Jbj *Jai» jl "Lulu *ipL>- 3* i-i-iUIl ^jJjaJI 

secteur y. ^UJ USJ .Jj^JI ^jti JjWI - 



7076- line transect- 
dissection lineaire- 

CjIjLoJI AJ**- 4j1c J. ? !i j (Jj-aiJI 



linkage= liaison, linkage^Lu,! : (^ J>.p) v^* 
tiy'l, ^ JLu systeme de chainons 



4079 -linkage-raccord ;Iiaison 
(systeme de chainons)- hljSji\ 



Felis lee^-Jj Panthera leo p xSti ^i ^Si\ - 



4085- lion-lion (felis lee> 



jJii=Recipient:(fJ>.p) v 1 -**- 
Receveur universe! :y> ^j*J' ^= ^ ' 

..U J. ,i«' ..» » l injU* j Ley' J "* " 



6287-universal recipient- 
donataire universel 



r u 



muscle lisse:Uui *j->jj*JIj JUj 



6288-unstriated muscle - muscle 
non strie 



ti* ifljj j -forearm-avant bras- ^L.:(^i>.^) v^ " 

bras-arm 

Harrap's Snorter^M* j upper arm LJS x*y "i - 



6290-upper arm - le haut du bras 



344 



-uretere Jjj uretere 



6294-ureter-uretere ^_Jl» 



(•f >.f) s 



^jJJI j JJUHJ **l> j -(■{ >-j0 V- 



6299-uriniferous tubule- tubule 
urinifere 



6309-uvular-urulaire 



*&* 



*$4y*tt&U<4}f 



:**ily«Jlfc*JI j o*l>-2 



ol>ljj*lj olJi>iU 


p**JI l ^uo> obJkrtll 


uolj3 j* j^II ^1 fj*A\ ^j» J^UIl - 


-253 agglutination - 


: SJLDI <^>Ijj_>£U oj^ jJLkA. ^Jb yaljj jJtux, «^.ji - 


agglutination ^ps 


: r y*Jlj oL# 1 j kJJI j jljOII ^-> + 




l^i-s^j I^Liu : f y}\ yaljj - <»J, j ^ H tJuu j^jj :ttf *J| ^ - 




.ojuu J| *Juu U^*-m £tf L. : (Conglomerat) ja^j - 




r J > : <#* ^ <^ !**>*'* ■ r^ 1 ' ^j* i ^ : ^j ^ - oji - 




<Jy«. ji Jjj ji ^». 5* ii»j : iijj 3JLJ / <uk 




: Petit Robert ^aw .-a^* + 




Agglutinencoller ensemble, reunir de maniere a former une 




masse compacte. 




Ol dlJ j I i_>lj-aJI ,> wjjjS ^lkn,» 3* j j5J3 Jh ai HjjJju j J.. 1 ; ■; - 




j<^ / U« 4-*u r _yJ :ttf AJi jfls 7 y*JI j oIjVIj UUI j jljOII v_^ 




.(-o j^J ^i)^ jjj) r^-yi -uLc j\ o 




(^uiii jjji Jjj li^-at "^ anorganic Jju inorganic - 


519-anorganic- 




yAjO. jji 


= L ^i i MM 3 celen^^l^^^jJi ^ v^**j) ,j* iJLuu-Jl ^MjHII - 


603- apium-apium, celeri 


Coriande ^lk-u L^JLlii S^jSJI Ul .Persil 


*y*i 


JL*jj yoLi. arborJLa*i_.*ii Harrap's Shorter *>** ^^>. - 


653- arbor-arbre 


Petit Robert ^ ■■.^■> J iLiliJl 


•»**- 


Arbre=axe qui recoit ou transmet un mouvement de - 




rotation 




V->* ^' ** ^-^ f^" ^ Wl ^ ^^ ,l ,5i> <> ^^'j 




Vasculeusell Vasculaire 


682 -area vasculosa- zone Vasculeuse 




(ou vasculaire) <*>^J **&* 


oyat,psammophile: ,y» il*OLJi i^jill oUJk-all - 


687 -arenaria -sabline-arenaire 


iL-aill |— lj ^^JWl ^1 oLil .j* - 


ILL, 


Aureola; aureole(Ang.) - aureole(F) :i * u^Jl 


688 -areola-areole 


.Lioi j^*^« areole »Jk-all ^U 


<JU 



*$4y*)t&U*4K 



Cil>lj3ilj oUi>5U 


pjhjjl 4_i^> obJKall 


j^l ^Wl ft-II v-» <*2 

jjA.n'ill *i*j-«JI ijfilUI V** 6iO<J"* 


7 1 4- Arteriole-arteriole 


arum =<_»y : ,jO*Jt — (j-"^ 1 J*^' y*j»li v-** " 


734- arum-arum 


atolij atolleJjy - atoll - 
coranien Jjj corallien - 

-iuU_^ ijij* :^jOU JjISII " 


782 -atolle-atoli (il6t coranien) 


oiseau (F.) = bird : Harrap's Shorter :^*, v-»* 


835 -avis-oiseau 

> 


j o^ls* aisselle ^-JjiJI gU^.II Harrap's Shorter,^ ^-* 
(a) anat.Armpit /(b) Bot.Axil (la) (d'une feuille) 


843- axilla- aisselle 


J# &* y g^ 1 ^ U11 * 


235 1- Ecococlimate — Ecoclimat 


i.jt j* derme J^UU - 


2489 - epidermis epiderme; Derme 


epiphyte Jju Epiphyte /oLiy _j» UaIc J*«-li j jjSII J*!*!' * 


2497- epiphyte - epiphyte 


pJL, ^> ^ ii— jl* 6/3 JSL-ai *u-i - 


2501-equidae-equidds 


jl^jj -lh fin Lewi J-W-*-.! " 


2555 —Excretion- excretion 


( tJ 3lj Jj3 ^spontaneous generation ) 5853 pi, cu*3 p^JI 


305 1- generation - generation 


J5UJI *l-rtl : g* 1 " 1 J***-* " 


3529- Homo sapiens - Homo-sapiens 


?6*-j5 6* «>»>" ^ i^ 1 ^ U " 


3786- In vitro - in vitro (dans le verre) 

((*•>!■) ***** J 


p^iJIj j^j* ji* Iridacees ~Ua-o. 


3793 - Iris 



<$4>*ft4>lj*4ft 



(yjjljj) i»I£JI Jii 'jyy^> 



2604-nuclein - nucleine 



(6*^>h) 6*»|j> 



Harrap's Shorter f>*» ., 
Pepin iere, (a) nursey (of young trees) 



46 13 -nursery bed - planche 



jJiuA. Ja, : J» -2/ ( JliJ-£) UU -1 : a>jll ^1 f*JI v t *-> 
ijji, oUlj,>* f-so jjJi (i^iii JJUI Jfi (sperme) ^ 



5813- Sperm - sperme 



L^ J ijli. 



tii" j 6'j** :^s*^ <> opJ, jJk-w : ^ 



—5841 -Spermatozoon (pi. spermatozoa) 
(<>L». ^) ,>*» spematozoide 



JjJjd JjIU ^a, UjiUJl y. Jta-^tl ^1 p**ll ve-o- ^jJl J^UII 

Petit Robert ^u ■.- --« .-lk_all 

Spirille : bacterie en forme de filament grele, ondule ou 
contourne en helice. 

j J^ilt vi->j .Uui ^SL, 3*3 i*JUii ^lk^L, LWbu j Ja-I-J 



5841-Spirillum- spirille ; spirillum 



^**ll sjii L. y> 3 tfj*. ji ^UJ; y> Spontane JLk-il ^a-iSl JjUil 
auto iiUl ^JUJI j J^liJ ^Ij c«Ul L.i .jL*yi ^1 



5853-Spontaneous generation - 
generation spontanee 



yi coulant Jko. Ui t Uoi Lj_Jjill j stolon ,Jk« J f .i ,.. : 



5923-Stolon - coulant 



u-iyJI j J.o. « J~Jl -Jiuall j* Symbiotique 



6028- Symbiotic — de symbiose 



^ 



Sympathique l^jih 
UAjC j J«I_J L. 3»j ^jj j* A*jil ^1 p^oJl ^^ ^^Ji J^Uii 



6029- Sympathetic - sympathetique 



3* i/ 1 ^' o-^' f-lj curculionidees 0L-3-JI : ^ iL^ilii 
charancons Ja. charancons 



6477- Weevils - charancons 

(...iL^y-jJl 



: f li> **>J i^ll oUJlwJI t U,i U*L£| ojUl ^illj A J^ori o^l cUJk-Jl <>j 

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669-565-627-561-515-514-495-484-462-453-444-433^132 



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Lj^ijjJl j LuyJL *-»L>- 4h .nil IiL-9 j *U*i-t " 
Jvu, tyAy iJ^U j*C oUJL-eu ■ 

- i^il.i i &> fjjJC U»> ojSS £>• <yw <*0*J* f' ^^ ^^ ' JJ 1 ^' *>*■* S? jU; J ^ buaJI «**"* ^^ * 

: Jlill Jjjl- ^3 ^JO ^ 

.(^i j^i «> ,ji)^^ a& i* b#j ' W*« tU »*^ ^ V u j**j **<+• ^>'J '^^ 

v±U> J> fc*- > &j£* Sjl3» .«ul3 >J 'U-i r *. > 4*»JI oUSl2l l#JJ ^ ^SJI JlL-iJI 6** - 
"j j UU*( iuUl JiLoiJI »U-i 4*1** Sjsli 3^-3Jl fJ l*3 <-<&*H <& **-*% -^ ^j* £** **** ^ ^>'j 

=^1 -jk-a ij-nw j**J« j* l* 5 ^ ^^ .r^ 1 r"* 1 ut **' y ** i)l ^* *"* ■^ -vi>i Uli>i ^-^ 

aceaeji acees a>*JW 5*3- ^ **- *«* ^^ VU-JI JJUii! 3**-3 6^^'*^ c"*-« "Charan ? ons 
.i^ ij-iJb pJU ^> ^ i*H» ^ 5 w^ V-^W 

.ILJ^j «-»U- cic^u 'lk*i & Jk) W^ J*-* oUJkall o*V J^ ~ 

: oide lL*!)Ub s ;t «" ij^Sl oUlh n.ll ^l J*lal« : JJ5 JI3* 



oUi>iU - 


^IjM 


^i>jijjkai 


iS ^-i\^kA\ 


Cristallis6=j^Ll. 
^Ij^ = CristalloTde:J>jll ^JJI f^*ll -j-— 


jy*u 


CristalloTde 


Crystalloid 


Cylindrique^l^kJ 


^ijk-i^ 


Cylindroide 


Cylindroid 


Oval -JiftJI ^ 
^^^ Ovolide =:x>yi ^JJI f^-ll v-»* 
ojibw^L. ovoid Uol JISj • 


J^Ji,^ 


OvoTde 


Egg-schaped 


amibien=^x«i 
^Ljjl,! = Amiboide: j>jil ^jWI ^>*il v- 1 * 


^' 


AmiboTde 


Amaeboid 



<$4y*tt&bi4tt 



te zjL, pjj tdJi. jluIj pis iijp.Sn ^k objk-j A»yi f^i ui cji».yi ^yi ^i ^ ij*» x»\ j5j .^l 

.(^-JJI ilJJ 0* VJ^ j!)*i-JI «iil3i OJS,,. Jill jJk-Jl j (4*JJ w*-DI jl) ^1 SJU Jh nil 
?*1*^«, ^ii^ ji Jj*^»J| <ii ^ liiltJI k-j^ 1 jJJ*-*!! tii-ai J*i . j»- 0*^ jl '^ l**-" jl **-~ 

<l*Jj» IaS^II oUlk^ll ,> *]i,i 1*J3 oi J* '*o*>»Jl USUI 6* 15^0^1 eJUl^uJl ^ ^UIl ^ ^ 

li^lkJI ^^Ik-'Jl ^UII yftuaW ^ tCjj** j f> #ill J,«J I^^jJI USJU tUiij j Sjljj* l^ jj jLjlVil li»j 

(j*y p*' <> j«*i c?^' V^ 1 '^l*jjj (ij&Ul j^l *lji| J IJ* ^L-y »VjII oUlk*ll ik-l^ f l*JI f># ill «> 

,<**L«!JI 4jluLu)I "' -If*** 

:Jtiil J*- Jb, 
^0*>*J< **^i c«; ^j ^ U Spontaneous ii* a' pl*J' £» ****- j v»>* Spontaneous generation -lk^* jjj.^, 

generation 
.iijj ^LaJka, iUjj Jii3 j SjjSS IuKJI oji^j j»Jj ^1 cjy*Jl ;"gene=gene =cn* " r'k "■ J>»- 

(genes ltes.g.independants. g.dominant .g. allele, g. letal.g. recessif. g.represseur, g.de 

structure,. ..etc) 
6* I3« (^*ll Jjji UjJ*j i gene ^1 jJk-Jl *,>* L^ii. *iu-J I^SJ ^Utt^ll »i* JS JlicJ jj j^-Jl j 

o*JJI ^L ^j Recessive= " recessif =(ojiUI ii-eJl y-£*) *j*0uU" «lk« ^i»j ,geneSJ£> UaJ,. "i o^JJl »j* 

.H-oJIj oai>o u;i^ o*>Ji JU jjk« "^ recessif 

:^>ioli»>5U-3 
U ^jSj JjUJ .^li^ ^H**!" 6* ^j t J-LSJI £,lkJl olj olk>5Ul ,> il*» jjlu iS^Ul olt*5Ul J! «U?L 

a* "Si .^aJlL. -i (l*lk*. 855) -a - jj» iiSrf . JUiSi jy^ J^ i*i> t ol*Jk*ll ^j^j^ i^ - 

.Jly jJii tjj»i«j : JUii 
.o ^ui^l f Sl jJk-IU LpUJO ji ya-« oUJk*^ l+.Uib illjj tj Jka« U»Jli JWSl £,*» ^Ijj} J! ,^u - 

.liiUUl 5jju«1, i^LLs JjljJfc «l***11j J>J3 ,>• J^uLlI ,> JJ« 



^y*H6U*4it 



.ijJbJI oUlWl £-»j oli**i. J*».j3 Jj> 1981 jiljj 

Utt Bjiyll S^IUJI ^Ull op t ,/#iy .ajiJJU J «J-S««U f* w, J fc^ 1 4 ^J 1 ' J 1 * 3 *"*' **"* ^ Sj ^ 

^ ^i u» 6 ij ^ <j& <** <> ^ ^ r*-" y*-' i**' 6. o»s 5»w j^ j- jsj jaw 
^^wi z*^ii i*bi* ^ Jij^w (vj-ji ^ j^' ^> *•> r^ atBM -> ^ ^ i ^ "^ 



lA»U*H 



etc. d'apres "Bibliotheque pratique de l'enseignement Tome 4 . Botamque k g 






(*b>^o 



=ADN, Acide ribonucl6ique=AR, Molecules, 
levures,opdrons, plasmides... 



^^JLjJI ^l , h_ ft lb l*—i^*3j levures de Biere SjjjJI 
sacharonyces celivisia:^* <jjJlj ,-iuuJl 

^IjjSl ol>Jt__a* J — »^11 |> — »oJl j yai^J! j - 

.^x^Ijl.aII 

.mutation genique ^» ^.l^aJij mutation gene: ix^.. 
^1 >JI &\# f+AU j^ll jJk-all JJ5-3 

J*i ji Oi* i*l5S :"SIS. l*i. jjj SjjU c/JU j ji* 
jljJl yiuu u&3 L^_J*i d}j£ cuu .Moisissure J .-. ; Uf. i 

l*K SjU o-J <_,i»JI cl,LUISJI »j_» ^1 >* 3 *-Jl y ■■; 

*0+*> j^i l^y*-J ;>£**» f-*»JI 3>L-<. L^i Luj IU 
.champignons microscopiques 



tj^yi jJk-ll **JtSLAl UIJI JUI-I ^JISLAJ 3^ 

O-^JlJl j iuj-Jl iilJl J^i-3 (JjJlDl foLOJI ^i tjj/3 
.^Ul pJUsJl ^j^, j Lj^iJi iiUi a^ic U 

j^*i jJLU — «!!_, ifcLJl LJl£_^ r l__,i |jj ^j 

f Uji* Ul j Ific .»oJ| J^i liUJ j Sj^^II 

>; pis .l^Sl pk oUJk-i jL*yi ^1 J \j2jh, jU- 
Acide disoxyribonucWique : »j v_.jJIj 



<v>Ji) oi>3 .iui-iu yji ^juii ( .) 



<$*>*tt&b*4tf 



U1SJI 6-» ji-^-^lj <J/N J*^ 1 c^ 1 ** J 1 ^ 1 0*~ >^J^t 

j L; usji *-*yj anaphase j metaphase ,i*juJ£)l j 

u*J£ J*u-l> pJ *ili I j^jj telophase j prophasejjutf 
.5j»Ij Sj*lfeJ jtw iiil»Jkfl« J i^LijUI 
o*-**! -»-»>ll p-^**H <j-k*i <3j— >i <-^ «>-• - 

t0 Ul£J| ^ j^ JJljS ^ Uj£, 5bUu ^jiHI ^.Ulhnll 

L_U*S)j Haplophase =lj*j-ai\ lu^Ji iSjUi ^ :^U 

:^>jUll jjtuj j>jll jJkall -6 
^Lll j «=«Jt$ jii 0J3JI jj^ p JijUll j^kc - 

jjjJI cSJ^j tJ JL> ^jtJCi\ »j_» J! jiA; 0' ff-U (j^J 

cS^kJI L#3U51S i-lj.0 <aUJJ l y*aL f> LJI j ^Ul 0^ 
t Sciences Naturelles i-^Ui py*JU |.y*Jl «=***- ^s*. 

I,J i'.lfejj I J m'ii j ^^-*jJ »jJ-i*J J! l~»jj.t» JH\ £±*\ 

Sciences de la vie et de : ._. Ij *-J »jl«JI j* ^n.- * *- a U 
.^uWl f jLJU l.». j *...•■ Uj U c^j • la terre 
jUaJI r jUI **%. c liu*il o"J*» j 'l^ V^-J & 

cm *&*; ^ jiuSij ^yi £**» j oyuai as*- 



.l^j* JjJull 4JUJI j jLj-iyi ^ Ih.n.ll Sj^CU cUlh.A, 



Hormone 


'■U)*J*} Vl* 


Mitose 


••J#* p 1 -^ 1 




:^U> f L^I 


Chromatine 


:^Uj> 




,j^H-- 


Chromatide 


:j*sUjjS 




S?^ 


Genes 


:^U jr 



prophase ^j***! *1»-jj * 

metaphase X,ul^x_t iU-jj . 

anaphase LJUuul il»j« « 

telophase Sjoi-i il*^ . 



*L*-ty ^ ObJkA« jJsm J VJJ- Sfrly 



(,) ^Jj«-»ll 4jx*i> .5j 



^Ijdl ;* ^UMI - £ 
Lh>j-»>JIj SjjJI ^jjJl jJk^Jl V L5! -_» 

<ij-*-' ^JLr*-J Jj'jlSJI **l- J! »jja> ^l*l£ Jjio «a*II 

3JI3U 0- jjJSJl ^ JU"JII IJ* Jl* ,5^ b»j 
Sji^S UU*i jj_«i: Li*j hjSj fJ LXj jJiuflll iLL :I*J* 
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- en 1845, local ou une seule personne est 
enfermee ex : cellule de prisonnier . 

Deuxieme acception : 

En 1668, cavite qui isole ce qu'elle enferme ex : 

B/Loge 

A/Cellule d'un gateau de cire (la gaufre est 
gateau de cire des abeilles) equival. Alveole : 
cellule de cire que fait l'abeille. 

-Enl830,Biologie: 

Unite" fondamentale, morphologique et 
fonctionnelle, de tout organisme vivant, qui 
comporte generalement une membrane 
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Figure 1.1 : les cercles secants de Fenneman 




PHYSIOGRAPHIE 

CLIMATOLOGIE 

BIOGEOGRAPHIE 

GEO.ECOM 

GEO.POL. 

GEO.MATH 



A. GEOLOGIE 

B. METEOROLOGIE 

C. BIOLOGIE 

D. ECONOMIE 

E. H1STOIRE 

F. ASTRONOMIE 



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B tci«ncM social** 

C sc'wncti g*om«triqu«t 




Figure 1.3 : Les plans secants de Hartshorne (d'apres Jhon Wise) 



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FONCTION 
DE RELATION 



DIMENSION 
TEMPS 



NOTIONS DE COHESION 



• micro 

— *■ 
Ocianograi 



Hydrotogie 

• Evaporation 

• equilibre da I'ea 
Pedotogie 
Bio-geographia 

- bottniqua 

Rtsaourcei 



HUMAINE 
Economique 

■ induitria manutactu- 

■ transport 

• marketing 

• localisation 
Agricole 



da la parcaption 
politiqua 
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Medical 



Continant 
Subcontinent 



Sous-region 
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etudes ragionalea; 

al synthase de respace 

(conception classi- 

que); 
bl approcha thamati- 

qua da certains ph4- 

nomenes da I'espace 

global, 
cl certain* phenome- 

donnee 







METHODOUOGIE TECHNlOuES 

Canographia: cartes, diegrammes at graphiques da lor- 

dtnataur 

Photograprna aenanna: patrte echeUe at "remote sensing" 



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Alain Rey : la terminologie : Noms et notions, que 
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"oLh&l^ii oi»Jk*i ji*.yi f**xr Uj^ji »i* j f jjl; 

: ^Jlsll JIJ-II Jb 
Jxi U) f L*Jl f^-LoJI j *Ui—II oUJk^l jl_*J J_* . 

oU^b^JI oUlKal 0>jll f^*ll fJJi3 -I 

«UJI yj/ill jx^S -_a-U e j A -»' s? :LJ, "^'j ^^W 1 
,_*y_,j .1990 ii- r> LJ1j iiUUIj 4_-o-U S^JI lutvULI 

^JliJij (1973 j-ii>»Ji) ^iiui -h/Ji s s^-*3> j W*J» 

. ( 7 y jl>>II f-j-Ul ^ >;i) (1977 UJ> 

L^jjj Sj-3^ L-KJk-^. 343 1 ol^-ob^l f-^>ou f— iy 

3*^ .iuyj *j-b» oibli. £. i-j^l^l 6* ^^J 1 L*^ ( 

J^-jJ U5UJ1 lu-jj o#J^ ^^*j ij— ij» 0*—^ Jju-« 

(ij^^ilJl tOji^"))! ii"j«Jl) ^-^1 ^WJW *JU*l-I 

oUJlwd Jt->^ll f-^ai J3-* ol_6>iU -II 

^i j,iili e ^\ f^M j jji^Ji ^yJi J*iaii Lijii^ 



(.-.yJ.1) Jl>; i<Li 1^>^I r ^ 1 J 



#$fe*tt&1**4ft 



Technique (N) => technique (adj) (3116) 
j jjiyi ^jjjJI j,iau UjUu. li«i : iillSJI SjfciJI -g 

r U)l pi-USJI j J*«3 — J» ^jjJt J;Ull £_. Jlj-jII ^jfcudl 

: oU^, gj Jj c^ttll U*j> .->«, 

,ii UJk*. 388 Ujacj o***«ll j ^j<Jl J*U1I u^ M 
( %41) ^ 

^ .c«***ll j (jlili-ill »lLt*. l( >-.) oUjliU o^Lu L*J 
(%8) <x^ ji Ulk.. 73 

<2 Jjj^JI >ii) 2 fjj jfu>j\ c»» c >wl*# Jli» 

I 

Vecteur 

Constant 

Determinant 

Arrangement 

Permutation 



1 £•>.»" 



Acceleration 

Denombrement 

Differentiation 

Fermeture 

Norme 

Quadrature 

Restriction 

Systeme 

Verification 



4(JJJK*) t3jA>u 

'(viso 3 ) '^yj 3 

2^4J 

(J-&US) tULiU. 
t (jiUJI) i jiUI 

t (jU5l) fcJ>J i 



^j_ji j,i_ai iu^& j! oi*^Mi o^* J l;Uj (2) 

: JUU 
Continuite (762 ) J^ 

Continuite d'une fonction (766) ... , 

Continuite a gauche (764) , „ , 

Expression (1222 ) 
Expression fausse (1259 ) 
Frequence (1318) 

Frequence d'une (1322) fonction 

periodique 

Frequence fondamentale (1342) 

Inequation (1592) 

Inequation a une inconnue (1594) 



5j U 



Module (1997 ) 

Module (1998 ) 

Module d'un nombre complexe(1999) 

Progression (247) 

Progression geometrique (1377) 

Variation (3341) 

Tableau de variation (3093) 






^ J*^ jjiyi ^jis ^jl^ii jj jjij uUj ( 3) 
! J****" ( ^j* Ji J* 1 * 11 -M ji a*jJ *3l*o»j (adjectif) 

: Jib 
Absorption (N) => absorbant (29) 
Abstraction (N) => abstrait (30) 
Equiprobabilite (N)=>equiprobable(adj) (1 159) 
Interieur (N) => interieur (adj) (1673) 
Monotone (N) => monotone (adj) (2016) 



,$*>*& &b*4ft 



achat, bate, capital, date, : Ji. oUlka, o^bli* w»W* 
ecriture, fl£che, gare, hentier, impot, jeu, Heu, 
JLi*| ^ OU j_* ^Jtli Jjl— Ul jLi ...£![. . .magasin 

: JjL. SjJjLS ( _JI) yel—Aii.'il fJ-t — J j J-»Jj oUJk-o* 

bipoint, cardinal, diagonalisation, encadrement, 
majoration, minoration, linearisation, incertitude, 
monoide, pr&lecesseur, schema, subdivision 

: 4j-,U oUi>>U -2 
jj i.b ^UDIj J^IjjU ^-U jljij-.'il ^i jJUi -i 
LulS ,3— ijiJI -Ik-all Jlj»0 UIjjJ .I_ol» ^f-jill JL»**JI 
j5j .oIa-oIj^I ylJi* j jl5 jai ^j*!! jJuauall ^L» b l -»» >j 
^i ^,jj jl>Ij jyjJ iLilij <>L*~>I }U_» j_>jII .-v.k.11 j jjj 
JaiUI iiJiiK. oUS iUjS ojjjj .«jlji* «U-.Sl DJLjk oj-^ 

.JJ-^I |L»jJl j IUJ»}\ 3-.UJI JjL*lj >Jjlj* ULl2j ^yijlilj 

JjjL»JI ^Jjji) jl>Ij J_JjJ, iiliiso *LwV illoi (1 

Classe ci^ 

(classe) <_i- 

correspondance aJjU* 

correspondance j^Uj 

continuity JLoJl 

continuity J l_ > *s-,l 

(continu) (u^J-j) 

inequation iJjUj "51 

(inequation) (i^^'j 1 *) 

interval le JL?- 

intervalle »jj* 

famille ****■ 

famille ^l* 

permutation Ji-43 



Hexagone 
Octogene 



'( l j ;L,i )'6« i * 



Plan 
Courbe 



Birapport 
Bipoint 



(.jil Unit) I SjJIjulju 

jjiyi (_,j^JI JjUII 3* 6*-»ji 6i-> »Ji>-eJI : 4-k>^U 

jjj ^1 i^yJL ^Udkall ^ : 4JJLDI i*j*»JI 
(jUli^l >iu>- a*) ^iliiu as-jII pjf*ll j ^yjj-c JjU. LjJ 
Uik~ 1 1 1 Ujjwj : .jjill j .UO-JI ^Jl J-.U1I <>* 
%11 i^^i 

(1 f3j JjJUjJI >il) 1 jJj JjJi>JI Cy» £>*a-u> Jll» 

Abscisse (♦ lJ i *-' <y ,Ji »!) J>-°*' 

Ordonnee Oi-* 1 - ly'- 1 *!) v^j' 

Parabole (^l£. ^j f»iA 

Hyperbole (jiij ^ti) J>^ 

: oUiL^I j iwL.Sl •^aUII ,> jjj*JIj 
Complexe, corps, combinaison, barycentre, 
inegalite, translation, repere 

ybLJl ikoUl *k£j !j»ji*j 

pi ^sll l^jl\> oUkoll ^Uj : 4*jI^I i*j***JI 
.(%38J) 365 Ujj*j j»3ll r*<uIJ ,^>Jl y->Jl j Jj3 
oL-L^I 0-1-1*1 j J*jJ >=, Ulh n . Jl l |i j-. ^ o-^ij 

j^LJ U p} (8 y*) ^*II li» fJjB j »L> US yfiLflSi-^l 



wMyftJt^WJt 



below / ensemble minore 

(2) ^Lulj3_-« jj_c (jU- uJ— uj (1) »lj_»Sl *-cja*j 

.(4) DjJjLa* i*^**4j (3) (JjJL* J.A£) 

j homomorphisme J_jlU JSLis j mille : J,;.. 

(...) jjSS Ujjiij centre de similitude ^LtoJl ^S^ 

fc -fc mll ^-Jjlll (j-oj^JJl J >Jjl > » lti n il t^iuu JjJ J —J 

.^jAJI-^jill — (i>l*i^l |^»*ll j SjjIj L^jL Lk A>.yi 
relation, regie, region, reflexivite : Ji* 

5LS j jjl^l ^U^JJ X-Jjlill 4—ljjJl j j**iJI o-S-ii o-» 
3JL*» (jU ^ULi JjSjIIj JJjj (^jJillj Jljv^II) Oj-t. ^ *!! 

(j-II >J) ISJtiJI i*j*»Jl l>*-» »Jjl^JI OiUiAll oajy ^*i_ub 

^ ^ i^jJl j Jitt^ £*>J| J| ^Jl J^Ui-,1 J*) -£u 
(<*^y}\ UDI j (Bi-) jiA-eull BIjS J,Uu jU»o|) Lu-Jl 
^ii^ ,>* |^Kw J_S j ^.jiill ^jjJI J^Ull (^a^j JjJJSj 
(-II ojii) ijJUJI ixj.-^.ll i.,i_„JJU oU3-ill «j— oj iJjIjUI 
LrfLoj- 5U« v^ 1 ^ J**" lj* O! •(•■•! J 1 **! 'JyJI : £±*) 

.0Jji*j (jaiw J£ ljj^> l -r L *- fl iJ 
^1>.I K . <\ » *3*juj JLfc^ll »-»oJl ,^aj icji_l»j SjjjLS' »A>IIj_)Ij 

,> ^ *ii ■*! t^j-ill f LJl pjJ-iJl j SI..-; .11 oLj^al^Ji 
|j i«>ii ^.lyi j sj^ii aUUuJi o- »j<w oL? J>ai 
i»L oi y ^jjtiu jtaio j*yi f^oJi j ^uu l+j ju*.? 
j^lui jUu^i (^ju t juu uj jj.^u- ^ui j^yi ^*ii 
.lu^di 014J1 ^-*fc^ j Sjuiii ^ssjij 



(JjU!) 



(permutation) 

division ^.-a 

Division **JI 

Echelle w,j3 

Echelle ^Lu 

Dem. par recurrence **-ijiJL Jiii-i 

Dem. par recurrence LU% J'ijo-l 

frequence j^j 

Frequence jjjj 

Polyedre -jkJi jj*i* 

Polyedre »>*3)l j^ 
tjjl^ l*Lll» ^Ij JaJUJI ^Lla* oULSJ 3JL5_*I (2) 

( 4 (J, Jja>JI >;i) jL>.yi f^oJU ^j*Jl iiUl j jl*Ij 

domaine, intervalle : JL** 

probabilite, eventualite: JL«s>l 

complexe, compost (N) : ^^ 

sens, direction : oUji 

limite, borne, terme: jl*. 

frontieres, termes : jjji» 

balle, bille, boule, sphere: 3jS 

correspondance, symetrie : Jb\z 
^i-j-Sl jj^dl o5CL_^l ^i *a_» il_i "i l_« -v 

:^^il 
power of a set / <*>*>- Sjjj. 1 

ensemble de parties 

skew lines / yliJlii* oU^c—* .2 

droites non coplanaires 

rational number / ^j ^e. .3 

nombre rationnel 
bounded set from jiJ & Bjjj^x* a*>»>- .4 



,$<3*tt61*4ft 



jo^yt^tfii 


f^-ii j ^j^vu Jylill 


j^lJ^Uil 


j^lJ.Uil 


f*A\ j oUjjiiJI jj* 


II ^i 


I 


If^-lt 


II ^1 


II 


1. Abaque 


Abacus 


jLuu 


<!..>>.« luLlM 


( 2) ^l. o-y 


2. Abscisse 


Abscissa 


Jk- J**>\ 


J^i 


(3) 


3. Absurde(N) 


Absurd 


j^j** 


Jk 


(1) 


4. Accolade 


Embraces 




ift 


<fJ)**J->> ^ji 


5. Alignement 


Alignment 


(jLtfljJ 


"^1 


(0) tJj>lj3 liiUjj* 


6. Assemblage 


Aggregation of term 


JJA>J| M*3*J 


■^ 


(0 






A ft l ,. ff t ijjAi 


Ic^j^ 


(3) 


7. Axiome 


Axiom 












.kujltjSJd 


^ 


(0) 


8. Barycentre 


Barycentre 










5j s 


xk 


(0) 


9. Bille 


Ball 


J J» 


iii* 


(1) 


lO.Bord 


Edge 












lijjSiJ 


^ 


( 1 )0jii-o <j5 <, ijilt 


1 1 .Calotte 


Cap of sphere 












iLJLJl (jXfci* 


4.I...Q1... 


(0) 


12.Chainette 


Catenary 








13.Circonference 


Circumference of a circle 


..Ja±»- 


^ 


(0) 


14.Cologarithme 


Anti logarithm 


^UyJl u-S* 


f Ull fijjlpjJ 


(0) 


15.Combinaison 


Combination 


AjJIy 


iiJb 


(1)^ 


16.Compatibilite 


Consistency 


jLol 


3-W— M 


( 0)jjL-3 t r L»^l 


n.complexe 


Complex 


^ 


JjiC 


(2) sj£^ J - i£ 










Jl ^>jJI »* : 1 *»*II 



^jill f U)l fJXiJl j oU-iUpi ol*ll«- ^*. ^»: II f**U 



1 flj Jjj^JI 



<$*>*lt&U<4tt 



f*«i\ j ijjA^yu jj\a\ 


f ^jijo>a^)iuj,iiii 


j^ij,iai 


Jy><*J*tt» 


j oLyjijJI JJtf 


u 


i 


i^ai 


II ^1 


U f^-ll 


1 8. congruence 


Congruence 


&lts 


iiil^, 


(0) 


19.construction 


Construction 


•l* 


.L5J[ 


(0) 


20.corps 


Field 


Ji* 


,-* 


(5) 


2 1 .correlation 


Correlation 


ilfjjl 


jJUj 


(7) 


22.correspondance 


Correspondance 


(iLli.) 


>Ij3 


<l)jH* 


23.crible 


Sieve of 


• ••JW> 


JLjS 1 


(1) 


24.critere 


(Canchy criterion) 


(j^«) 


JIjua. 


(0) 


25. crochet 


brackets 












ILtkL^u. t^ljil 


iij2*. 


(0) 


26.croissance 


(ascending..) 












(^acLu ..) 


*»j5 


(0) 


27.couple 


couple 


^iUi 


fcJJ 


(0) 


28.declinaison 


declination 


jIa»JI 


t_»lj»«JI 


(1) 


29.decomposition 


decomposition 


J^ 


,'l.<^- 


(1) 


30.demonstration 


(demonstration) 


<J*J3-I) 


*l** 


(0) 


3 1 .deplacement 


displacement 


Uljl 


Jui;i 


(0) 


32.diedre 


dihedral 






/K 


33.domaine 

34.echelle 

35.efficacite 


domain 

scale 

efficiency 




r 1 - 


( A ) 

(2) 

(2)^u. « &J s 

(0) 


36. elimination 

37. 


cancellation 
elimination 


StliS 


6^ 


(0) 


38.epreuve 


trial 


*J,U« 


jLui-l 


2) 


39.equipollence 


(equipolent sets) 


(*isl5i«..) 


^Lj 


(0) 



<$*>*£ &Mt 



^ij io^i* jiiai 


ojJb^Vb Jjlill 


I^lj^jJIJ-lill 


j^ij^iai 


oUjjiill JJ« 


ii 


I^lj 




ii ^i 


n ^aij 


40. erreur 


Error 


Iki. 


u* 


(6) 


41. excentricite 


Excentricity 


<sj£j. Jiiiw 


iS'^j* j*Ijj 


(1) 


42. eventuality 


Contingency 


JU»I 


;Lyi<L.! 


(0) 


43. extrapolation 


Extrapolation 


^> J^ 


tULpL.1 


(0) 


44. extremum 


Extremum 


J>a 5 TJ^i 


wil>. 


(0) 


45. factorisation 


Factoriazation 


J.1^ J! J^ 


J** 1 ^ 


(0) 


46. famille 


Family 


<JjLc lUuf 


Bj-I 


(6) 


47. faute 


Fault 


Sy* 


lk» 


(0) 


48. frontiere 


Boundaries 


j 3 ±> 


r* 


(0) 


49. gain 


Gain 


& 


s^ 


(0) 


50. generatrice (N) 


Generatrix 


r'j 


# 


(2) 


51. helice 


Helix 


^ 


> 


(1) 


52. hexaedre 


Hexahedron 


j^jkJ) ^la- 


o^ 1 l; r' jL ' 


(0) 


53. hodographe 


Hodograph 


^rb 


>*J» r ij 


(1) 


54. homomorphisme 


Homomorphism 


j-o. jsm 


jslm 


(5) 


55. hyperbole 


Hyperbola 


^ij^bi 


jyii 


(1) 


56. hyperboloYde 


HyperboloTd 


^jiij j^-^* 


jy^r*- 


(0) 


57. histogramme 


Histogram 


•M)* 3 £>-> '^j'j 53 ^j- 1 * 


jrb- 


(1) 


58. implication 


Implication 


6~* 


f ijU-» 


(3) 


59. incidence 


Incidence geom 


■ ^yr*-^ 


^" 


(1) 


60. inclusion 


Inclusion 


.IjS^I 


,^t*-aj 


(0) 


61. incompatibility 


Incompatibility 


vJUj 


»L*-»Jl »J* 


(0) 


62. indeterminaition 


Indetermination 


Lrti" 3 f->* 


jLii»aJl ^ 


(0) 



,$*>*& &l*4tf 



f^dijv^ywjffli 


I ftudl j 4*3*1*1*1* Jj\Ji\ 


4*ij^jtw 


j^ij^mi 


OlfcfjiiJI JJ£ 


ii 




i^i 


iif^ai 


n^ij 


63. inegalite" 


inequality 


-*i* 


ay* 


(4) 


64. majoration 


increase 


■"L0 


jW 


(0) 


65. maximum 


maximum 












<5_tf* *4^ 


**-*» 


(4> 


66. mediatrice 


right bisector mediator 




Jx-lj 


(2) 
(4) 


67. minimum 


minimum 


- 


^ ji 






ii>-° t -iH^> 






68. module 


modulus 


o-*W** 


jLuu 


(4) 


69. normale(N) 


(normal to..) 


<■>>•*) 


^ 


(2) 


70. notation 


notation 


>J 


^^Us-el tottS 


(0) 


71. Objet 


object 


V* 


uJIS 


(1) 


72. orbite 


orbit 


jU. 


J 1 * 


(0) 


73. ordonnee 


ordinate 


^jLo j^Ij^-I 


vj3j i 


(1) 


74. organigramme 


flow chart 


oM^ r j 


^njEm hhv. 


(0) 


75. orthocentre 


orthocentre 












oXlC^I allj 


AoUiJI jSj* 


(0) 


76. paire (N) 


pair 






(0) 






jTjj 


IjIUJ 


77. parabole 


parabola 


iilS.CU 


f^ 


(0) 


78. parallelepipede 


parallelopiped 


£^kJl lSJ'^U 


^jSii ^ys. 


(0) 


79. polyedre 


polyhedron 


j.jkJIjA.CU 


<*»>SJ 


(2)^1^ 


80. postulat 


postulate 


luu. 


Iac^j. 


(1) 


8 1 . prime 


premium 


k_i 


sb& 


(0) 


82. prisme 


prism 


J3^* 


j>^ 


(2) 


83. prix 


price 


J*- 


y*J 


(4) 


84. proposition 


proposition 


I** 


5j L* 


(1) 



<$4>*lt&lj*4ft 











ifs-ii^^ijfiai 


II 


ii f^ai 


85. 


rabais 


Rebate 


u*yi*J 


ikjk* 


(0) 


86. 


recensement 


Census 


jIj*. 


•i->! 


(0) 


87. 


repere 


Cartesian system 


f lfci 


fj« 


(5) 


88. 


retournement 


Turning 


.JU»juI 


vB 


(0) 


89. 


semestre 


Biannual 


iSy-* <-*"" 


j+£\ *x*— i^jJ~>l 


(0) 


90. 


signe 


Sign 


K*U 


5jU! 


(0) 


91. 


sous-corps 


Subfield 






(0) 








J>j*&* 


</>*- r^ 


92. 


sous-espace 


Subspace 






(0) 
(0) 
(0) 


93. 


sous-normal 


Subnormal 


J>*& 


^ tU * 


94. 


superposition 


Superposition 


j^Jl«»3 


^^O 


95. 


supremum 


Supremum 


vSljj 


j*Uxf 


96. 


retenu 


Carrying 


Jxl^jL*] 


^_jk -i»- 


(0) 


97. 


region 


Region 


S^ 


JiUi>l 


(2) 


98. 


symetrie 


Symmetry 


at- 


<+* 


(0) 


99. 


synthese 


Synthesis 


>& 


JiU 


(5) 


100. 


tautologie 


Tautology 


^s 


,JlJjj 


(0) 


101. 


taxe 


(taxe) 


J-eb- Sir** 3 


i^J~ 


(0) 


102. 


test 


test 


O-Hy*) 


O^ 


(0) 


103. 


trace 


plotting-tracing 


jULi-l 


JJJ 


(1) 


104. 


translation 


translation 


Jwk*3 ~(~-y 


kki 


(0) 


105. 


triangulation 


triangulation 


i_jL»wijl — Kj»'i~ 


"**ij! 


(1) 


106. 


triedre 


trihedral 


olili* J! f-JS 


liiL 


(1) 


107. 


-rype 


type 


^1 ^WS 


**/« ^ 


(1) 


108. 


univers 


Finite universe) 


Ui 


3 i> 


(2) 


109. 


variance 


Variance 


fib 




(0) 

(2) 


110. 


verite 


Truth 


V l^5 


iJ^uL* 


(1) 


111. 


argument 


... 


■ 


S^ 


"' 



234 : ii r**n j 5Jj»y» WFs J** ** u * WSJI •"* 



,*4>%tt&l*<4lt 





** 


Jjj*JI 






^Ijo^jLjJVbJ.UUI 


f^ljirfj*l*?l*J*Ull 


f^-llj^lJfUtl 


j^lJ^UUI 


CjUijiui\ jj* 


n 


I 


1 


n^-di 


II f^Mdlj 


1 . acceleration 


acceleration 


tf~s 


U^ 


(9) 


2. adherence 


adhesion 


3-* 


jj-l 


(2) 


3. allongement 


alongation 


<JU£_I 


4JU4 


(0) 


4. antiparallelisme 


anti-parrallelism 


tijIjlJl jui 


jUu cSjlj3 


(0) 


5. arrangement 


arrangment 


*r*A>j> 


<AHJJ 


(1) 


6. automorphisme 


automorphism 


J±h J.UC JSltt 


^li J^J 


(2) 


7. birapport 


biratio 


^^ 


" iyU^ 


(0) 


8. borne 


bound 


(jJ)L* 


'ji- 


(2) 


9. calculatrice 


computer 


v-u 


40-CK. 


(0) 


10. complementaire 


complement 






(3) 






(r i*) (U) 


,*U 


11. collection 


(collection) 












(**>**) 


4*J*^J j«i**J 


(1) 


12. conclusion 


conclusion 












L*j3i 


£ 13B-I 


(0) 


13. connecteur 


(connectives) 










W *•>>') ^'jl> 


SMJ 


(b 


14. conservation 


(conservation) 












(jii*) 


3AJU> 


(0) 


15. constante 


constant) 












(0,15) 


4Jul5 


(3) 


1 6. courbe (n) 


curve ( ji*ili) 












((jj*^ 1 ) !>*" 


(/ i*^ 


(5) 


17. denombrement 












enumration = couting 


iC 


jljUj 


(0) 


18. determinant 


determinant 


JJJJ 


DAI*! 


(1) 


19. dualite 


(duality principle) 


(iwUiJi..) 


*i>" 


(0) 



ISO 






<$4*fttt&li*4ft 


2 flj Jjj^JI 






I ^1 j SjjJL^yO Jjlill 


i 


n^ij^ijfisti 


II ^Ij 


20.differenciation 


Differenciation 


J^U3 


iUUU 


(0) 


21.duree 


Duration 


JL-I 


5i* 


(0) 


22.echantillonage 


Making up of samples 


*SAj» 


oW* 3 


(1) 


23.egalite 


Equality 


5ljL« 


*jjL-i» 


(0) 


24.endomorphisme 


Endomorphism 


^Ij JSLB 


^bJSLtf 


(3) 


25.etoile 


(star) 


((^) 


l^ 


(0) 


26.evenement 


event 


SSjU 


^ 


(11) 


27. expression 


expression 


l,W* 


j«-S 


(6) 


28. extension 


extension 


£--y (j*^ ^i-i 3 ) 


J*- * 3 '(^-"J 3 


(3) 


29.fermeture 


closure 


.pUJI 


j^! 


(0) 


30.hexagone 


hexagon 


j-li- 


^j-u 


(1) 


3 1 .hyperplan 


hyperplane 


j*\y~- 


,/j»«5>s— 


(0) 


32.hypothese 


hypothesis 


**ij9 


oitj^l 


(2) 


33.identite 


identity 


lulk. 4 JjU=3 


jjli« j,^ tH;lk« 


(2) 


34.indice 


index (phindices) 


J*>-> 


Jl. 


(3) 


35. infinite 


infinity 


W* 


U^DU 


(0) 


36. injection 


injection 


o^ J^ 


0& 


(1) 


37.integration 


integration 












J*IS3 


4i«li. 


(2) 


38.lemme 


lemma 












■i ■ ' ' 1 *" 4jl> U10 


° ■*-><■«" 


(0) 


39.mediane 


median 












)e**y* aji" ii » 


.k-j tj^-lji. 


(2) 


40.monome 


monomial 


A*JI ^sjL>I 


ijli- 


(1) 


41.monotomie 


monotone (adj), monotoni 


<^j) 


5*bj 


(0) 


42. multiplicity 


multiplicity 




-^ 


(2) 



****tt61j*W 





2 fij Jjjl^JI 


n 


I ^1 j OjJ^yu Jj\Si\ 


i^ij^ij.ia 






43. norme 

44. octagone 

45. pavage 

46. pave 

47. permutation 

48. perpendicular (N) 

49. plan(N) 


Norm 

Octagone 

Pavement 

(paved) 

permutation 

perpendicular 

plane 


JjJjj (JjLu) 




(3) 
(1) 

(0) 
(0) 
(2) 
(1) 


50. preuve 


proof 


ji-i 


tiji-j 


(13) 


5 1 . prolongement 


(extension of function) 


Jt'cM* 


u»> tat** 


(1) 


52. quadrangle 


quadrangle 


(...j|ji,l) 


j,^ 


(1) 


53. quadrature 


quadrature 


^jJ^ 


^ 


(0) 


54. quadrilatere 


quadrilateral 


&S 


fkj 5 - 1 


(0) 


55. rangee 


array 


£U,*i\ ^L, 


^ 


(4) 


56. recurrence 


(recurrence) 


«-«*- 


*i*i-» 


(0) 


57. restriction 


restriction 


jl^oU^L ^IjSJL 


c^" 


(6) 


58. resultat 


outcome 


jLcuil 


J>a 5 


(1) 


59. salaire 


wage 


G* 


^ 


(0) 


60. separation 


separation 


** 


S^i 


(0) 


61. singleton 


singleton 


J-i 


JL^I 


(0) 


62. sommation 


summation, summation sign 


4jjU.| <£.y^, 


ojU-i 


(0) 
(0) 


63. succession 


succession 


(£**) £J**3 


e*** 5 


64. surjection 


surjective application 


JljJ 


s?^" 


(0) 
(1) 


65. periode 


period 


j,Li j,uk; 


J^i 


66. supposition 


assumption 


( 5 jj j ) jj j 


J*> 


(0) 

(9) 


67. systeme 


system 


yi^i 


yaljSSl 


68. tetraedre 


tetrahedron 


f l* 


<*& 


69. trace 


plotting 


»^y ^ 


^j! ^lo 


(1) 
(0) 


70. triplat 


triplicate 


J~kW 


Li*; 


71. trisection 


trisection 


oi^ 


^k. 


(0) 


72. variete 


manifold 


^ 


ttdJ 


(0) 


73. vecteur 


vector 


ic_jil« 


**<>» 


(2) 


74. verification 


verification 


***• 


«<>u 


(12) 






iS*** 3 


Ji»J 


(1) 



202 : H f*A\ j jjjiyi Atjtij j>a, ^ u oUBJI jj* 



**>*tt4>k4B 







3 fij Jjj*JI 












.ij^ijJiui 


^jilljJMI 


If^-dl^jdlJfBll 




532 


528 
(1162) 


class 
(class) 


classe 
classe 




.1 


(H) 


(763) 
(764) 
(752) 


(continuity) 
(continuity) 
(continued..) 


(continuity..) 

(continuity.) 

(continu) 


JL.3I 


.2 




727 
725 
(726) 


conjunction 
conjunction 
conjunction 


conjonction 
conjonction 
conjonction 




.3 


Designation 


972 
(973) 


determination 
(determination) 


determination 
determination 


*~ 


.4 




(1210) 
(1211) 


(expansion of) 
(expansion) 


(developpement) 
(developpement) 


J** 

4i 


.6 




(796) 
(2162) 


correspondance 
(correspondance) 


correspondance 
(correspondance) 


(..■>l») 


.6 




1319 
452 
850 


(curve) 
(curve) 
(curve) 


Courbe 




.7 



3 ^JjJ^ll 





I p*i\ j j>i*i?i cifc-n r*j 


JjfoiW jlkall 


^c" 1 


I ^1 j ^1 j^lill 






1063 
(1233) 


Division 
(division) 


Division 
(division) 


^ 


7 




2788 
(1078) 
(1256) 

(482) 


Scale 
(scale) 
(scale) 
(scale) 


Echelle 
(echelle...) 
(echelle...) 

(echelle) 




8 




1223 
(1225) 


Extension 
(extension) 


Extension 
(extension) 




9 


(2348) 


(1375) 
(866) 


(figure) 
(figure..) 


(figure..) 
(figure..) 


J** 


10 




(2218) 
(1260) 


Family) 
(family) 


(famille..) 
(famille) 




11 


(1594) 


1592 
(1593) 


Inequation 
(inequation) 


Inequation 
(inequation) 


O^ljll 


12 




(2164) 
(540) 


(interval) 
(interval) 


(intervalle) 
(intervalle) 


SjSi 


13 




1457 
| 1320 


Histogram 
Frequency hist 


Histogramme 
Histo de freq 




14 



<$4:*tt&Jj*4lt 



3,J,Jja*JI 




If^Jlj.ij^VljJtUlpjj 


4j&$\ c U M dl 


sr -i>j» c tt^at 


I^IJ^IJ.UII 






2393 
(984) 


polyhedron 
(polyhedron) 


polyedre 
(polyedre) 




.15 




(485) 
(493) 


(...polynomial) 
(...polynomial) 


(polynome..) 
(polyome..) 




.16 




(2612) 
(934) 


(..recurrence) 
(..recurrence) 


(recurrence) 
(recurrence) 




.17 




2741 
1952 


(right bisector) 
mediator 


(mediatrice) 
(mediatrice) 




.18 




2323 ' 
(866) 


permutation 
cyclic permutation) 


permutation 
(permutation..) 




.19 




2579 
2771 
1487 


(rank) 

row 

(...place) 


(rang) 

rang 

(rang..) 


iJLe 


.20 




234 
(235) 
(236) 


argument 
(argument..) 
(argument) 


argument 
(argument) 
(argument) 




.21 




1318 
1322 
1342 


frequency 
(frequency) 
(frequency) 


frequence 
(frequence) 
(frequence) 


Jjjj 


.22 



^>*tt&l*<iW 



4 f3j J>i*JI 







^^VljJkai 


^ylljjfcwll 


1 ,4*11 j ^yJI J#Uttl 




(808) 
(1810) 


1804 
(3121) 

370 
(3131) 

371 


limit 
term 
bound 
terms 
boundaries 


limite 
terme 
borne 
termes 
frontieres 




1 




2452 
757 


probability 
contingency 


probabilite 
eventualite 




2 




1092 
(1093) 


edge 
(edge of...) 


bord 
arete 




3 




1997 
(422) 


module 
(..criterion) 


module 
critere 




4 




2948 
301 
301 
301 


sphere 
ball 
ball 
ball 


sphere 
bille 
balle 
boule 




5 


sjijji ji^, r*j-u ju- 


1069 
(2164) 


Domain 
(..interval) 


Domaine 
intervalle 




6 




2828 
1022 


Sense 
Direction 


Sens 
direction 


dL*JI 


7 


cjik»;i 


3261 
1620 


Turning 
Inflexion 


Retoumement 
inflexion 




8 


One to one 


3084 
2162 


Symmetry 
(correspondance) 


Symetrie 
(correspondance) 




9 





652 
| 634 


Compound 
complex 


Compose 
complexe 


^ 


10 



i^Ji i*Ul j 4>lj wijlj* W*U* «ji*Xl obi WW Wta- ^^ ^ - ^^ 
■jL; 4 fSj Jjj^»JI 



,$4>*ft&l*4tt 



1 5 jJj Jjj^JI 



fjj-ll j i*Mji}L jOWIII 


f**ll j 4*-«>Jb glkAllI 


1- Linearisation 


18- 


Cardinal 


2- Symetrisation 


19- 


Clan 


3- Mathematisation 


20- 


Confiance 


4- MonoTde 


21- 


Contraposition 


5- Morphisme 


22- 


Depouillement 


6- Predecesseur 


23- 


Diagonalisation 


7- Predicat 


24- 


Effectif 


8- Preordre 


25- 


Encadrement 


9- Qualification 


26- 


Epimorphisme 


10- Shema 


27- 


Epure 


11- Seuil 


28- 


Escalier (3002) 


12- Subdvision 


29- 


Trellis 


13- Vissage 


30- 


Trilou 


14- affixe 


31- 


Filtre 


15- diagonalisation 


32- 


Homeomorphisme 


1 6- Bipoint 


33- 


Incertitude 


1 7- Bon ordre 


34- 


Indeterminee (N) 



j 5 fa J>x*Ji 



Achat 


i\ji, 




Ecriture 


oltf 


Arbre 


»_r^ 




Eloignement 


jUul 


Argent 


& 




Enchere 


j!> 


Arrivee 


J 3-°J 




Enveloppe 


ci^A 


Atome 






Exemple 


Jtt. 


Augmentation 




Fleche 




Baton 

Boite 

Calendrier 

Capital 

Chemin 


Lie 

J*- 




Frais 

Frictification 
Gare 
Grossiste 




Cheque 
Colis 




Guichet 
Heritier 




Comptable 




Hypotheque 


t5— 'J 6*> 


Couronne 
Date 


\±&\ 




Impot 
Instrument 




Depression 






Jeu 


<JU«J H_«J l"ijL«j 


Detail 




Lien 


tt*lj 


Devis 
difficult 


*-^li* 

^ 




Location 
Magasin 





I,Jj ^1 j ^j* I4J j^Lu Vj n ,Jj ,^11 j iJjbi. oUliwd Jtill j#- ^ oiV 



*$4>*ft&bi4tt 



remarquables, mais qu'elle s'autorise des ecarts par 
rapport a la langue naturelle dans laquelle die se 
moule pourtant. 

IV - Sens courant et sens mathematique : 

Certains mots, bien vivants dans la langue 
courante, sont tout a coup investis d'une denotation 
specifique. Pour certains, le sens usuel sert d' image 
. et aide a la comprehension. Dans ce cas on parle de 
termes transparents directement interpretables par 
reactivation de mots tombes en desuetude et 
revitalises avec une signification directement 
derivee de la signification devenue obsolete ou 
encore en usage. Exemples : ordre croissant, centre 
d'un cercle, image d'une droite, limite d'une 
fonction,... 

Mais pour d'autres mots, c'est I 'inverse qui 
se passe: le sens familier "brouille" la representation 
de Pobjet mathematique : a-t-on jamais vu une 
hauteur qui ne soit pas associee a la verticalite? Un 
nombre pour lequel on a besoin de preciser qu'il est 
strictement positif? Un sommet que Ton contemple 
en dirigeant son regard vers le bas? 

Mefiance aussi a I'egard de certains termes 
qu'il ne faut absolument pas prendre pour des 
synonymes, tels que «inverse» et «oppose» d'un 
nombre ( le ler est le sym£trique pour une loi 
multiplicative et le second pour une loi additive ) et 
pourtant on emploi bien, ailleurs, presque 
indifferemment l'un pour l'autre (a «Finverse» est a 
peu pres synonyme de «a l'oppose»). 

V - POLYSEMIE 

La plupart des mots du langage courant sont 
polysemiques, et Pintelligibilite du discours n'est 
compromise du fait que, dans chaque situation 
d'enonciation, les locuteurs selectionnent parmi les 
divers signifies d'un mot celui qui donne le sens 
adequat. 

En revanche, on sait que les langues de 
specialites ont un lexique monosemique , ou du 
moins elle devraient 1'avoir, et les mathematiques 
n'echappent pas a ce constat. Or certains termes tels 
que diametre, hauteur, sont polysemiques designant 
tour a tour une droite, un segment, une mesure 
(perimetre = DxIT). 



VI - Synonymie et reformulation 

On dit qu'il n'existe pas de synonymes 
absolus (interchangeabilite dans tous les contextes) 
dans la langue mais a condition d'accepter une 
certaine approximation, on peut s'aider d'un 
synonyme pour appr^hender le sens d'un mot. La 
synonymie eclaire le sens des mots les uns pour les 
autres. 

En mathematiques, il en va autrement. 
D'abord il est tres peu fait usage des synonymes. 
Meme si on peut lire que «image» est le synonyme de 
« transforme », il n'est pas certain que cette 
synonymie aide vraiment a comprendre, et il faudra 
faire autant d'effort pour retenir le sens de l'un aussi 
bien que de l'autre. 

Par ailleurs, certains expressions pourraient 
etre priser pour des procedes de "reformulation (dans 
le sens ou l'on reformule son idee pour la rendre plus 
accessible, ou bien on evite de repeter une expression 
en utilisant un substitut). 

Mais quand on lit 3 a +3 b et 3(a+b) sont de| 
ecritures d'un meme nombre ou bien AB=CD 
signifie que ABCD est un parallelogramme, on doit 
savoir que l'on est pas en presence de procedes de 
reformulation. Ces ecritures sont en fait des 
traductions de lois et/ou de proprietes. 

VII - Conclusion 

Pour conclure, nous estimons que I'analyse 
des aspects evoques, se situant en amont des 
operations de traduction et de normalisation du 
terme mathematique, se revele necessaire pour que 
ces deux activites soient realisees de maniere 
appropriee. Sans pretendre avoir epuise la question, 
nous esperons avoir donne a entrevoir quelques 
aspects lexicaux de la langue des Maths comme 
langue de special ite; en insistant sur le fait que celle- 
ci est rigoureuse et denotative, qu'elle exclue tout 
jeux sur le sens des mots, tout halo autour de mots qui 
pourraient s'adresser a Pimagination, a la sensibilite 
et aider a construire le (ou les) sens. En 
mathematiques, les mots ne qualifient pas, ne font pas 
image, ne suggerent pas: ils designent des objets, des 
relations et des demarches. 



*$4>*ft6U*4tt 



Avant meme d'entreprendre la lecture d'un 
texte mathematique le profane a le regard agresse, 
intrigue ou emerveille par des signes graphiques 
etranger c'est que ce texte est rddige dans une 
langue qui utilise outre les signes de la langue 
naturelle ecrite, des signes symboliques qui lui sont 
propres. 

Comme tout autre systeme linguistique, le 
code en est arbitrage, c'est-a-dire sans rapport 
contraint avec le signified Mais l'univers auquel les 
enonces se referent fait d'objets et de lois est 
etrange a celui de l'experience empirique 
quotidienne. C'est un univers d'idealites, 
d'abstractions, purs produits de notre esprit. 

Dans une premiere approche, en observant 
la carte des signes (symboliques) utilises en math on 
peut distinguer : 

■ des signes originaux : e ,1, \r,l,o,\X,>,< , 

■ Des abreviations : unites de mesure(kg, dm, u, 
A) log, cos, sin, tg, 

■ Des signes dont le graphisme est utilise dans 
d'autres types de textes comme les lettres (a, 
b,x,y,t, d,...) les chiffres(0, 1,2,3...), des lettres 
d'un autre alphabet (a,fl,y,A,£,7r,...) Mais en 
mathematique ces signes vont signifier 
conventionnellement des objets, des notions, des 
relations. 

■ On trouve aussi des signes a valeur 
metonymique (la metonymie est une figure de 
style qui consiste a designer une realite par une 
autre ayant une relation Iogique avec elle : boire 
un verre, une oreille attentive...). Ainsi peut on 
considerer que l'absence de figures 
geometriques qui " illustrent ", le signe A 
designant un secteur angulaire on le signe 
ABCD designant un parallelogramme, ont une 
fonction metonymique, qui reclame qu'on se 
deconcentre de ce qui est ecrit pour entendre 
plus ce qui est ecril: 

Dans une observation un peu plus fine, on 
peut noter que certains signes (symboliques) 
peuvent prendre des significations differentes de 
celles qu'ils ont en langue naturelle. Par exemple, 
on peut trouver dans un meme enonce, des signes 
tel que les parentheses et les accolades, employes 
dans leur sens mathematique (C) designent un 
puplet, [ ] designent un intervalle ou segment de 
droite ) et leur sens; de signes de ponctuation 
(phrases incises) 

Certains signes sont, en mathematique, 
polysemiques, et ceci selon des conventions qu'il 



faut apprendre : + et - sont soit les signes de nombres 
relatifs (x = -3, y = + 5) soit les signes d'operations 
ou de lois de composition internes pour etre plus 
exact (x A -x B , a+0). 

Un chiffre n'a pas la meme signification 
selon sa position dans la chaine ecrite. Exemple : 2 a 
une valeur differente dans 12, 15, 14 , 10 2 , 2 V 

Ces observations voudraient devoiler certains 
aspects des signes symboliques en mathematique. 
Cette opacite des signes est accrue par le fait que 
certains se referent a des objets (35, %, [A,B], A..), 
d'autres a des relations (a£b, f(x) = y...), d'autres a 
des sortes de predicats, c'est a dire a des verbes de 
phrases mathematiques (P=> Q, AoB..). 

Ill Lexique 

De tous les traits qui caracterisent une langue 
de speciality le lexique est tres certainement le plus 
spectaculaire. Si on consulte le lexique repertorie a la 
fin d'un manuel de math on y repere: 

■ Des mots appartenant strictement au domaine des 
maths, par exemple : abscisse, bissectrice, 
hypothenus, orthogonal, hyperbole, homothetie, 
isomorphisme, endomorphisme, asymptote. Ces 
mots sont monosemiques (signifient par renvoi a 
un sens univoque). 

■ Des mots dont le sens premier est mathematique, 
mais qui sont entres dans un autre domaine ou ils 
fonctionnent de maniere imagee. On parlera par 
exemple de vecteur d'une infection, de l'equation 
de personnalite, de quotient intellectuel. 

■ Des mots aux facettes (sens) familieres, mais 
qui, suivies d'un mot qui les determine, vont 
prendre un sens particulier, exemples: signifier, 
une fraction, reduire ou developper un produit, 
resoudre une equation un nombre rationnel 
(complexe), produit remarquable, application 
lineaire . 

■ Des locutions, en apparence banales, qui se 
revelent en fait, des articulations tres fortes d'un 
raisonnement, par exemple : On pose, on a, il 
vient signifient bien autre chose que les simples 
faits de poser, d'avoir ou de laisser venir. 

Dans chacun des cas, il s'agit, bien sur, de 
termes mathematiques, en ce sens que le terme est 
l'unite de designation d'un concept, d'un objet ou 
d'un processus de la realite percue ou concue. 

Ce qui peut entraver la lecture d'un texte 
mathematique, ce n'est peut-etre pas tout que la 
langue y ait sur code specifique et des tournures 



<$4y*tt&Ul4tt 



Aspects lexicaux de la langue des mathematiques 



Abdelekrim BENFATIMA* 



I- Introduction 

La terminologie est une science qui se 
definit comme etant P etude systematique des mots 
et syntagmes servant a denomer une classe d'objets 
et de concepts (Petit Robert). Elle ddsigne la 
demarche qui permet de grouper, de structurer un 
ensemble de termes propres a une technique ou a 
une discipline. 

Pour Robert Dubuc, la terminologie 
implique une fonction de recherche et d'inventaire 
du vocabulaire en situation, un processus 
d'identification notionnelle qui permet non 
seulement de circonscrire les concepts de base, mais 
encore de mettre a jour tout l'arsenal des moyens 
d'expression caracteristiques du domaine etudie 
(d'ou Pimportance de Panalyse contextuelle) 

La traduction du terme mathematique et par 
suite sa normalisation ne peut se faire de maniere 
correcte et efficace sans une connaissance 
approfondie de la langue des mathematiques 
comme langue de special ite, par une analyse des 
aspects lexicaux de cette langue, un recensement 
des structures syntaxiques qui y sont frequemment 
utilisees et par une etude du style de cette langue et 
de la typologie des textes mathematiques. 

On oppose generalement la terminologie 
generate a la terminologie differentielle. La 
premiere analyse des principes de designation et 
d'usage des designations dans les domaines 
specialises. La seconde tente d'etablir des elements 
de comparaison entre systemes de designations de 
domaine a domaine pour la meme langue ou de 
langue a langue dans un meme domaine (dans la 
perspective du traitement de terminologies bilingues 
ou multilingues) 

Dans son introduction a la terminologie » 
1981, Guy Rondeau appelle la premiere: 
Terminologie interne. Mais pour la seconde il 
oppose la terminologie comparee a la terminologie 
differentielle. Pour lui, cette derniere est un champ 

- Professeur a l'E.N.S de T&ouan 



d'etude a peine, effleure, qui releve de la semiotique 
et qui porte sur les ecarts entre notions ou entre 
denominations d'une langue a l'autre. Elle constitue 
un complement necessaire a la recherche 
terminologique comparee. 

Nous tenons a preciser que notre intervention 
se rapporte a la terminologie gendrale ou 
terminologie interne et qu'elle se limite aux aspects 
lexicaux de la langue des mathematiques reportant 
Panalyse syntaxique et stylistique de cette langue a 
une occasion ulterieure. 

Situes au carrefour de deux codes, celui de la 
langue naturelle et celui de la langue mathematique 
et de son symbolisme, les textes mathematiques 
reclament une grande concertation et beaucoup de 
patience de la part du lecteur en quete de sens. Si 
Pacces au sens d'un texte est une activite complexe 
ou interferent des facteurs multiples, lies a la 
perception visuelle, aux processus cognitifs et a la 
nature meme de la langue ecrite, alors qu'a de 
specifique cette activite, au niveau lexical, lorsqu'il 
s'agit de donner du sens a un texte mathematique ? 

II- Les signes symboliques 

Le symbole est ce qui represente une chose 
en vertu d'une correspondance conventionnelle (petit 
Robert). Le dictionnaire encyclopedique (des noms 
propres) de la langue francaise le definit comme un 
signe ou ensemble de signes utilises par convention 
pour representer une unite, une grandeur, un 
operateur, pour comparer des grandeurs. II est 
prudent, legitime et coherent de dire avec Roland 
Barthes que le symbole apparait des qu'il y a 
«coexistence de deux sens ». 

Prenons quelques exemples : 
M<eRO,R) signifie OM<R 
Lim f(x) = f(x ) <-> f Ve<0£x>c 

x ^ xn \|x-xo|<x^|f(x)-f(x,)|<£- 



^y-i j-ijAs 



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i^jjrfLsJO >->_*j jii i».>jl)l ijuii u^j •-*--" I*' 

j if i-^-f Cj->LuoJI cj\ nl-fcll t)Lj j-Sjj SjjJJl jjL>wt »j5j 

JUJI Jjo U ol_JL» 1*1 fi nV Iajlu i 4. u L u J -" j "Ojfej 0*5j*J 

.wo^iJi j,i-»i" 

o^j-iu LfJL-ci ojjJJI CjajIjLiI tSji-o* <3-lj5->l J-uj 

j+tf-j ^Jknlt jLf-*l -Ul — — v->-* J! u-r UJI £• J--*"- 1 
i5j>Sl» ji ^-J-Ji v-J^-J' jj— 5 - 7 -*->* J! **!--»! -Am*' 
LJj-U vi^i *_Ju y.^1 jU~l j_> .aa-aiOJI v l_k» 

^JL-sJI Oi-f -» 5">L-JI bj_-^>. ti^l-JI (j-ik-M JbL_kl 

.L-H-jiJI 5jU .......jU-JI i_jUll_) ^J k^ ., 1 , 1 ^y^L-Zil 

j_>^ll ^j>»JI Jya- J-«* --ijj f-JJ-^f ojjJJI JLcl cJIjjj 
Ju***) t^^JLjjjJJ J_»*i iiJiL.'il U^Oi ttbjiJI ^LaJtwsJ 
j_Jj i tf ^J^l liJWJl J-^J (A***-* -»---*-«J 'l^W 1 

^-.Laij >->*-! ij* on *iij-*« «--«*-« w uls-^ii f*-ji 

..^ill 4^1 iujSjl Sjljj Jj £»• iOM-il 
4j .ji3 ^j-j SjJJjl JUil «-juuj"-.l 4 Jt^ll |»jJI jj 



L_jl-JI i .jjJIj tfi J-J!j SJl&Jlj i^oj-JU i^j«Jl 4 .h',.11 

j SjjJj J — >^ll -JJa-oll" S_)J_» cu_*k. t Ltlj-tuu SJ"L-.SU 

t 21 t20 ^Ul "^...■jlt-JI JL»jJI j i^s-jSJIj vso^ 1 --•---" 

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.otjku 

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LiLJI i-jjib -^,5L,^I >oUjjJI o*i ;>. t^jj-oJI jJL* 
p_JUl j-Oj J'_-i --JLlf BjjJJI cju^jisl ol^ii. 5J"L-!>0 
U (3 JJl «.j,,>..VJL. L^jj jSJ t iujill *£UIL. (jii-Jlj (i^i LUl 
^jljJl L>j ._jJj ^^Ul <_ j*LJI ikiJ^U -jji3 Sjlj^l ouui 
,_^«_JI u-jjSUI At, ,J'i ^*j •jjJu L-j.->iJ tSJjUSu l±I*)l 
JjjL-u o-» vi*-^ 1 Ori-^- 3 J ■-- J, J J, *— -"^J^ 1 jl) j Itf 1 ^ 
1 _jJu£j L-jJjjj jjjJl L»j]a-Jt j^jfJU ojjj hJjLoj-JI v-^" 
, c _lk,oll Jlj— Clj 4 t^jjJl Jl_~« j v-"-^ 1 3i— •* 

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*Si -juji i 



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<_KtjUI i-JlSJll a_-*jJLU ^3 tfi LJt ^ijjL u^Jl JJ^U 
liJtiJI Uwiijj i-jjil UxijL, 4J*JS j ci^e Jis t <HA*H 



^yfcft&UtlUt 



ol>Jka« J^» J*ft tf^ t(«*jiJl JsyUUjt i<£JjmJI ijbl 4<* 

Jj_> J_*e SJj^ f, jjji'l Jlj^Jt j*y i-i* au>j 
j^*> :5J3l_-Sl L»j*I oL^l^JI oUltw.1 jl^jII p**ll 

L*\+* j U»jUi*I v-^-'yt <£l>Jlj "il^lo" **j *"*£ 
«-L>0 J m— *lj S^jJJl ol— JL» uu t5 ill tJLiiSJI j^a>JI 

:5jj_i Jy_> 4_jill J_«JI jljjij yi^nJI 4J* oyL-i 



i*U-o : 4JI^J£ l^)-*v ' . i l* *a»L^ i>» iS^°* rjy? jy^^ 
J SajjuII JjUI yiuu IjJiu (jJaJI p^oJI ieli* Jj»I^ -ui 
£«_; ,«*WI pIKnll : o'ji* o*J (<*■'-• «»**»*J rl*J' »»yti 

J_»fi iijj ^jSj; J'jj-" ■»-"# 'b- 1 *" '■"'**' cJIjjj 
Slil_Sl jIj^J <>, .L^l ol_>Jlual jL^yi p-^Jl J^* 

(J JL»J3 l_*S jJkall ^-ij j ojl^II jJljUt J^* ciiUv*^ 

.a*yi ,^-U ^ 

1>j-* 4-A. * -L m )l <jL-JL * J .JlJ Ji* klJUJl .^Jt Ul 
tilAJlSl 4_i» (^ t?^! wy^tf IJU :*il^ic itLa^JljIJI 

4_,jl*«Jl »j-» <j_« B^».^ll wUuJIj v^" 1 " *^** 6* »J>-Ji' 

oJljill oUak-Jl jU^I ijj^ 4^ £jtf| ^IL-V 1 ^'j 1 " 
j LwLk-UJ > .i|i^; , «!> lS>jj3 «JJuu wy l+l* Sjlii-Zilj 
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t4T »^j^v^o*-«Mlll*jW* j*l^ r y-Jlj 4^» --«ii LJ-ki Lull, ^-afl ^Ut iLb «-l*- ***WI 

JLx, j ^1 £»«Nj I^jUlj JLJU1I £*NM > J*-U gSLC J! ^i3 3_*LU! Ibio cUjj J* jj^JIj J*-« 

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L^ «> Ajii-j ,/ vo"" JjJi J! *w ^wj 3 - 

o^ij ^i .o^ "<-^! J! >^W a*** US £*-» ^ J^J *^> j«S"j ^» J*-» v^ 

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Sj ^» ^ i^i ^i **o6Ui ^^J 5i3L ' lJ, SjUI • ;i ** lJ,:I,, ^^ 



r 


-Wt-^M -in 


^ 


i^K 




*ttwMf^f*»-l 




: £pJI 


£>j3tiJI f>*4 -2 




<uii.^-liill j^ . 1 




v 




J 






^Ujl^^U.j 



D 


Dyslalia / mechanic, 




Dyslalia / motoric = 
mechanic dyslalia 


Dyslalia / functional 


yU ,> OJUJI jkJI u^lC 


Dyslalia/ connected 


iLLilll jWl j-c 


Dyslalia/specific 




Dyslexia 




Dysorthography/ 
errors 


LU<JI .LLii 


Dysorthophony/ 
errors 


jkJuikvi 


Dysphasia 


**i>»j» (yj^-uiiji 


Dysphonia 


Ojrfjl *U>jl 


Dyspnea 


l_j-iJlJl j~ui 



Dysprosodic 


j ^yi ^i»ji v i^6i) 


E 


Echo 


O^JI £*, itfi. 


Echo Speech 


f *£Jl j.u 


Echolalia 


iijlj miiJ*ll j^jji cSbUu 


Echopathy 




Echophrasia/echolalia 


jxtZt XiJijt Jj*Lfe) JslilSl 4jJ«aj 

(infill i^Lil S^^aJI 51SUJL, 


Echopraxia 


IJlj lji\u *jSj»- 515Lk» 


Educable 


,J-iU Jj15 


Education 


r*"*s> 


Educational 


<fJ* ^yJ 


Educational clinic 


*iXS Sjl *« 


Educational diagnosis 


iSyy o9*3k^; 



motor alalialjB motor/Alaliax. *.*ji ,* j^ j^iyi uai jd IjBj *,! j^Si ^ *uiii 



W/^-U U.I* - j*LJI ^yU)l yjai (J* JUJ***' 



<$4>*tt&ljj4ft 



Educational 
retardation 


^ijJI^lslI 


Educational 
stimulation 


4y.y j** 3 


Educational therapy 


<ixyto £>UJI 


Efferent 




Efferent aphasia 


5jj-oll *_jjl>JI 


Efferent axon 


_,jU i j i ^4 jy^> 


Efferent nerve 


J5U ^ tjJ U ^ 


Ego 


(^-uji j^usii) \si\ 


Egocentric 


olill J^ jS>I* 


Egocentric response 


olill J_j* SjS'yu ^»L»i-l 


Egocentric speech 


olJJI Jy* jS^U ^ 


Egocentric thinking 


cnlJJI Jy> jij*" ji&J 


Elicit 


—jUjL^I t ~y>oLjl 


Eliciting stimulus 


ijL>o~.^(l rj>i-L» jj1« 


Elision 


(O^^Jl tii*) kjl> 


Eloquence 


I>Loi tii^j 


Embryo 


ui^- 


Embryological 


J#* 


Embryology 


^.SlfJ* 


Emotion 


iiku tJUiJi 


Emotional 


^U t JUiil 


Emotional adequacy 


yumi ^usji 


Emotional filter 


^Ui/il ^i 


Emotional regulation 


^Uittl fotJlJl 


Emptiness 


^<t> 


Endogenous 


Ji-ljJl^f.U cbill^b 


Energy 


ojS tS5U> 


Energy system 


a5UJI i»3fel» 



Epilepsy 


g^JI 


Epileptic 


s/v- 


Equal 


JjUt (jLl. 


Equal stage 


tSjLoJI <U-j* 


Etiological 


(vV-i <>») (jw-" 


Etiological 
classification 


oliji.n* Jl*I) (jW-Jl t-ij'i rVill 


Etiology 


yAl^ll vW-' r 1 * 


Electroshock therapy 


Lj5b_^SJl cl.Ua.cJI ik-l^j £>UII 


Event 


ii,U ^ 


Events 
communication 


k*.j|jjj| (Ji-ojJ) Jl-oJl 


Excitation 


Bjli! <.*#£ 


Execution 


^ 


Exhibition 


jU>l ty AljA,l 


Exogenous 


^UJi <> ^Aii tlsjii ^»> 


Expansion 


«_*)3 4j|jl»l 


Explosion 


ji*i;i 


Explosive Speech 


(iji^iii r ^ 


Expression 


~Leu[ tjJJ*» 


Expression aphasia 


j^juuJI (bjlil) 4~^>JI 


Expressive activity 


iSjif" J»l"2>J 


Expressive behavior 


lSj*- 3 4> L *' 


Expressive function 


<0*«S *^J 


Expressive language 


io^-W 


Expressive 
monologue 


ijjjjuO 3L>U* 


External 


^> 


External control 


^J^^ 


External environment 


i_jjj-jl>JI iluJl 



,$*>*» &b*4tt 



Extinction 


*u_;i 


Extrasensory 


^I^kJI & ^p. 


Extrasensory 
perception 




Extraversion 


J,L_pi 


F 


Facial 


**Jk l>»-» t( ^*j 


Facial expression 


^^j-yi jn*si\ 


Facial nerve 


. * i null) ^^jfcjJI »_i.jj.1| 


Factor 


J.I* 


Factor analysis 


^Ul JJ.OJI 


Factor / causative 


^J.u 


Factor / centroid 


<£&>* J-i* 


Factor / environmental 


Ljijj J*l^* 


Factor / extrinsic 


^>J-l* 


Factor / genetic 


(i/^) i/Lu J* u 


Factor / hereditary 


tP!_» J* 1 * 


Factor / intrinsic 


^iwjj.u 


Factor / overlapping 


iU-l-L. Jjl^e 


Factor / pathogenic 


o»j*» J*l* 


Factor / predisposing 


u^jj ;_a$ii j*i^<ji 


Factor / social 


^Ul*! JjU 


Factor / verbal 


_^JJ-I* 


Feed 


*JJL«J 


Feedback 


(djjj«) S_»lj L>lo 


Feedback / delayed 


SLwj* <**lj *jJuu 


Feedback / immediate 


i^ji *A».ij Lio 


First 


J/JI LwjJI fr. cJjSl 



First signaling system 




Fissure 


^_vi t j_ 


Fissure/central, fissure of 
Rolando 




Fissure/ lateral, fissure of 
Sylvius 




Fixation 


(,,-ii JiU3) -^ 


Fixation conditions 


OjjjjuJI o"}ll>- 


Fixed 


^tt 


Fixed interval schedule 


ibliJl jjjj-iJI 5jii .liu 


Fixed ratio schedule 


4_uuul VouJl J * /■ *Uaj 


Flat 


^y* ijk-, 


Flatten vowels 


<*k_ii c-iij-ji 


Fluency 


(S^ij) u:>i_ 


Fluency disorders 


i£>_Jl oUjk_>l 


Fluency/ideational 


I^-ill I55UJI 


Fluency of expression 


j*«_l j O^UJI 


Fluency/word 


IL-illl *J*_JI 


Fluttering 


r *_Jl j Sjil^Jl iCj-JI 


Flash 


l>Oj* 1<-a*_j 'u^fij 

fiO- 


Flash cards 


£^-Jl yi^Jl olJlLu 


Form 


U*» «J£» 


Form/symbolic 


<^,j i^, 


Formal 


.ij^- ttf lS_ 


Formal operational stage 





*$*>*ft&b*4tf 



Forward 


r* V ui 


Forward associations 


4LUI oLbLJ^I 


Forward conditioning 


f j&ll Joljli^l 


Fraction 


^^ 


Fractional 


</* 


Fractional antedating goal 
response 


iSy^i oj^Ji *jL»jl,i 
f sssi\ 


Fractional signal 


V>[JI lJSi\ 


Free 


&lt «^> 


Free association 


j>i\ ^ijsji 


Free recall 


^»J| jtadl ji *Uj3L.1II 


Fricatives 




Frontal 


,5*** V 1 * 1 


Frontal lobe 


(£UjJJ) ^l/Jl yaiJI 


Frontal vowels 


LmUSi oJ1>JI 


Function 


lukj 


Function^euristic 


iJLiSl-l <AJ»j 


Function/informative 


(lu^Uj) O^* iijjj 


Function/imaginative 


1LJa>J iivfej 


Function/instrumental 


(i^j) "*#*> *^to 


Function/interpersonal 


4^1«US lutj 


Function/neutral 


LJic Ziifcj 


Function/motor 


LjS>Jl ^jSltyi 


Function/personal 


^J^JI iiifeyi 


Function/regulatory 


Oijlii" AfJaj 


Function/symbolic 


o>.j iijfej 


Functional 


^ 


Functional aphasia 


<&&>*-*» 



Functional asymmetry 


^jJljMWUI 


Functional deafness 


^r 


Functional dyslalia 


^yi jkJi j-» 


Functional defect 


ij£i ^rtf* 


Functional disorder 


,/to v»>*i 


Functional fixedness 


/to"-"** 3 " 


Functional system 


4»uLil»j <*fctu* 


Functional view of language 


iAij s^iifej Sj£u 


Functional vocabulary 


ZAJjj olj/u 


Functional brain system of 
speech 


i^fcjJl i^LJl i*3£Jil 


G 


Gammacism 


p^Jl^^ 


General 


f U 


General ability 


L.UJI SjjiJI 


General basis 


XjU ,^—1 


General factor 


r ui J«UI 


General intelligence 


f UJl ttfiJI 


General mental ability 


JjUJI LJi«Jl Sjjill 


General norms 


L,U( j^Ull 


General linguistic theory 


U*JI o>il!l ij>ill 


Generalization 


f*-S 


Generalization process 
disorders 


•juajJI ■*;*- g <i)bljl>-ol 


Generalization /transfer by 


«jn>"lb JUU"Jl 


Generalization/verbal 


^tipS 


Generate 


J* 


Generative 


lijJjj 


Generative rewrite rules 





^>*Jt^Ui4tt 



Generative semantic theory 


^fiii Jud\ "iuj* 


Generative system 


jjj^flt; 


Gestures 


5»Uj[ t5_jJUL» <Zj\£j3- 


Global 


^'J*^ 


Global characters 


*il£ji iJULioUL* 


Glosso 


yUUl 


Glossophobia 


,J£DI .Jl^i. 


Glossopharyngeal nerve 


^.^JjJl <yUJl ujwuJl 


Gnosia 


attj* cii^. 


Gnostic 


Jy- 


Gnostic units theory 


MyJi oi^i 1^ 


Gradual extinction 


j^jjjUI .lil^ll 


Grammar 


(JfiljSJI) 


Grammatic 


j*IjUI ... .t. 


Grammatical competence 


ijJ»Jl Ojjill 


Grammatical system 
disorders 




Graphasthenia 


oUiDl SjLf* ki ■0)*-o 


Grapheme 


ojU^ Sjl>j j*j»i 


Graphic 


^ V ltf 


Graphic lapse 


LutiS tstiyu 


Graphic segments 


iutSiJI ^b2)l 


Graphic signals 


S^ltf ^IjLij 


Graphic substantiation 


iJiUl 



Graphic substantiation 
disorders 




Graphic text 


^USy-y 


Graphomania 


LUfliy^* 


Graphophobia 


i.U5Jl wily- 


Graphorrhea 


<*5lj Lij) otlSJI jijj 


Gray 


^Lxi- nijUj 


Gray matter 


j) iul^JI SjQI 


Grimaces 


4jkj)l IJjKB I 1 "' 1 1; *■<* 


Growth 


^ 


Growth/horizontal 


^•i^ 


Growth/linguistic 


csyuiyji 


Growth/mental 


^1 yii\ 


Growth/pattern 


^IU 


Growth/physiological 


^y^ill ^1 


Growth/psychological 


^j-i^l^l 


Growth/vertical 


tf-'j*" 


H 


Habit 


S.U 


Habit/acquisition of 


djUJI v Lo*I 


Habit deterioration 


oIjUJI jjajJ 


Habit formation 


SjUI6^3 


Habit/language 


oyUl obWl 



<$><>*£ 4Mit 



Habit/oral reading 




Habit strength 


SjUJI 5y 


Habit training 


cAjUII ^ijSi 


Habit/transfer of 


SjUJI JUtUI 


Handedness 


i5j4^l J* * 5>H 


Handedness/left 


(i^jl jj! fljJKwl 


Handedness/right 


^1 jj| r la*A-l 


Handicap 


jib tlftU 


Handicap/emotional 


^yJUiJl JjU 


Handicap/hearing 


^5**-- 3 51 * 


Handicap/language 


dyi jJU 


Handicap/multiple 




Handicapped 


3j»U _j J t t£yu 


Harmonic 


u 3 *-** 'p*-i» 'J- 1 * 


Harmonious 


pUj^I £>~o- t J«<tuj 


Harmonization 


J-.U3 ijily tj^jj 


Harmonize 


j-i 'JJ'JJ 'i*»J 


Harmony 


piUj i jLBI ijlij 


Harshness 


4_fcJ,p t 4ja-iL> 


Harshness voice 


.jjiJi c^-ji 


Hemiplegia 


^5*-^ Jii 


Hemispheres 


O^kll SjSJl fa 


Heuristic 


<jH& t jLiis-i 


Heuristic function 


LdLiSj-il iijlij 


Heuristic method 


jjiLafiL/ji u^ui 


Heuristic search strategies 

1. 





Hierarchy 


^ f±kJ3 h*j* 


High 


^ 


High vowels 


iJUJI oJI^Jl 


Higher 


JJ '^' 


Higher brain centers 


Ukll £UjJI jS\j> 


Higher mental processes 


UUI 44BUJI oLUJl 


Hoarseness 


<£*■ ii»u 


Hoarseness voice 


o^Jlo- 


Holism 


J£JI^ 


Holistically 


** 


Holophrastic stage 




Homo 


^1 ^Jl 


Homo sapiens 


JSLc o*-*i* 


Human 


JLuJ Cj^iJ tyLul 


Human behavior 


JL«i[ il)L( 


Human cognition 


JJJI jj^ll dlj/il 


Human intelligence 


^L^l *15JJI 


Human race 


i^A. U>L, 


Hyper 


ojbj tLji* tJ»j9 


Hyperactivity 


jJljll iLiUl liLSJJtliji 


Hyperacusia 


e-"^ 


Hyperkinetic dysphonia 




Hyperprosodic 


j^tsHiji 


j Hyperreactivity 


J-iiljjJ.> 



^4>*tt61Mtt 



Hypo 


*"i Vi t i!3 i (jeJu 


Hypoacusis 


^u-JIJ^ 


Hypoglossal nerve 


^UJI 0*3 V_W«J| 


Hypokinetic dysphonia 




Hypoprosodic 


C^sIIJ^ 


Hypothetic deductive method 




Hysteria 


^i tL^L** 


Hysteriac 


l^i-^^U. 


Hysterical 


^j* Hjjji-A 


Hysterical amnesia 


iSj#L-#JI SjSliJl o'Jii 


Hysterical aphonia 


iijj.uj.fJI oj-Jl o'J** 


Hysterical blindness 


iij* L -^ JI i^-"^ 1 (j*^ 1 


Hysterical deafness 


tij.a.^.11 |iajJI 


I 


Id 




Idea 


s j>^ '^" lS j*» 


Ideal 


>SlJSII iJKU 


Ideal curriculum 


^ISllgfill 


Ideal competence 


4*11211 oUlll 


Ideal strategies 


4*JliII ^L^Jlji^l 


Identification 


j*M^ '*-i>«3 


Identification clues 


*-»>dl j^li* ji ^'jJ> 


Identification function 


4<jij*DI 4iafcjJl 


Idiocy 


(^fia o^-i) 4S*Jl 1 



Idioglossia 


rj-ej »jl*)«LoL». iil 

iii£ jJjj '—"-•*• jlaJJl 


Idiom 




Idiomatic expression 


4,l>5lkj>l OljJJJO 


Idiot 


Ojiu 


Imaginative 


^Ljj. njjyai 


Imaginative function 


(4*J) Sjjj^jjJI *i»Ji^)l 


Imageless thought 


Jj-o Oj-^ J^J' 


Imbecile 




Imbecility 


^ 


Imitation 


SISU, cJuIfc 


Immersion 


o-UJI 


Impression 


£ljjjjl 


Improvisation 


IL>Jj* JU*i 


Impulse 


^ 0^! 


Impulse/nervous 


t^ 1 * j^il 


Immediate 


J*U ttSjy t^L. 


Immediate action 


^U J*i t J^-Lc *l^l 


Immediate feedback 


O^S <**»j *->**> 


Immediate memory ability 


jAUll j^JOJl ^1* 8jjiJI 


Immediate memory spam 


jwUl jSJUl jo* 


Individual 


^ tJ > 


Individual differences 


iiojill 3jji\ 


Individual instruction 


(JJjiJI y-JjJjJI 


Individual therapy 


jjjiJl £ 5UI 


Individualization 


IjjjiJI SUlj* i A)ji3 



*$*>*ft4>b*4H 



Inductive 


(jlljfc-l 


Inductive ability 


ijiljil-.l 5jjj 


Inductive process 


JLuljiJLiI HjliC 


Inductive reasoning 


^Ijfc-"*! J*j3L/Sl 


Infantile 


J\ik% JLCU ij& 


Infantile behavior 


JiL^ 


Infantile speech 


J&f* 


Infantilism 


ijykii cUUkii 


Information 


oLtkn* niiUjI** 


Information circuits 


oUjUl lyh 


Information feedback 




Information function 


5j3Uj1*j iiyk} 


Information gap 


ouy*ii j 3^*3 


Information gathering 


oU_jUll ( «^ 


Information processing 
theory 


ldUjLJI L>JLw o^u 


Information system 


ZjjLjIm it^lai* 


Information theory 


kiU^UIl *J_)JaJ 


Information transmitting 
model 


^L»y*ll kiu rJ^*J 


Inhibit 


«j» n_iS 


Inhibited speech 


(^rttf off) J*S* r ^ 


Inhibition 


ui -jy-i-ti n_«5 


Innate 


^ Ki-rfj 'JJ> 


Innate language learning 
ability 


iiDI pl*S) aj>3 Sjji* 


Innate learning mechanism 


o^ki <j»j1«" oUI 


Innate linguistitic universal 


S^kiJl SjjAIJI ^yui 


Innate property 


^UUli 


Innate representation 


^imji 



Inputs 


O^U-Jl. 


Insight 


jb^i-l 


Insomorphism 


(jjuai ji> jSLiudi f j*. 


Instinct 


s >0* 


Instinctive 


(',■ *'*» j**) (ijo* 


instruction 


pil« 


Instruction/oral 


Hjjij cjUJjJ 


Intellect 


jS'Ji* 


Intellection 


pfij tjiw 


Intellective 


jj- '^« 


Intellectual 


J** 'Jj»* '^ 


Intellectual ability 


SrfUijJ 


Intellectual deterioration 


^J^Jj 


Intellectual development 


jj*ll J«JI J^JI 


Intellectual maturity 


jjji ^B-Ji e*ii 


Intelligence 


f l**tfj 


Intelligence/abstract 


J^JI ttf jJI 


Intelligence age 


^Ij-Jl 


Intelligence/biological 


^y^i .isjji 


Intelligence/innate 


(»i>*ji) «i^yi •isjji 


Intelligence/non-verbal 


JJU\ > .ISJJI 


Intention 


rj"- 1 - 3 


Intentional babblement 


OJ^-aill 5UU1I 


Interaction 


J*li3 iJjU 


Interactional exchange ability 


JjUHI 


Interactional function 


u*U3Ji ^ufeyi 


Interdisciplinary studies 





*$tb*tt&V*4it 



Internal 


^LU ^b 


Internal control 


(jli-ljJI -MJI 


Internal graphic store 


iji \2Sl\ ^IjJI o>JI 


Internal language code 


iJi.|jJl OjAiJI SjiiJI 


Internal manipulation 


J^IaJI fl»aJl 


Internal monologue 


iali-b 3l*li, 


Internal speech 


^'■T^ 


Internalization 


6*JJI j ffU&wl 


Internation 


j»A*JJ 


Introspection 


ouv-^i 


Introspective methods 


lulhn-^1 JjU\ 


Intuition 


L^jjj i^-i* 


Intuitive 


tr- 1 * 


Intuitive thoughts 


LwJL>J| jlSj^l 


Intuitive type 


1 _ r ,^»Jli u JJI 


Involuntary 


cSJij ■* 


Involuntary nervous system 


jjijiyji iSiM }\ ji^>ji 


Involuntary organization 


jjiji yji ^.jfeai 


K 


Kappacism 


_»ISJ| jk; ^ 


Key 


JJj kc ia. 


Key/coding 


W c 13 ** ' J^' ^ J 


Key/decoding 




Key sentence 


**-*y» y^jJi 


Key scoring 


»■_;■>. n"l| ~UuU 


Key word 


**-"ij<*l^ 


Kinesthesis 


SS>JL, y-L^I 


Kinesthetic aphasia 


i«S^>Jl !L-,Lk»Jl L-is- 


Kinesthetic imagery 


^j»JI Jjuxill 



Kinesthetic memory 


Jj^\JJSS\ 


Kinesthetic method 




Kinesthetic response 


:ls>ji i-b^-ii 


Kinesthetic sensation 




Kinetic 


& 


Kinetic aphasia 


juZj*M (L^liSl) w>Jl 


Kinetic melody 


^lyill 


Kinetic-optical signals 


LiS^j. Ijj-oj ojljLi| 


L 


Labia 


i^LuLUl tlLft 


Labial 


,j**A 'oj*-S 


Labialisation 




Labiodental 




Lading, lallation 


(i^ »IjJI ^J5) liilJl 


Lalo 


^ioju* tp Kj i^5tf 


Lalopatholog 


f M5Jl t>*lj,i jJLc 


Lalopathy 


j^l v ljiw,l 


Lalophobia 


^1 ^Jl^i. 


Laloplegia 


oUUlJJLiji^ 


Lalorrhea 


SjSjUI 


Lambdacisms 


f *JljU w«* 


Lamprophony 


^^j lOjJlfc, 


Language 


UJ 


Language acquisition 


i*Ul V USI 


Language alternation 


k_JjlJL> jl ^jiJ JjLu 



A4**&&yw 



Language code 


L^Alil SjiAll 


Language disorders 


U1JI ^U>-il 


Language dissolution 


oUJi d£; 


Language forms 


<*y} <**-» 


Language habits 


SjjAUI obUJI 


Language handicap 


iSyi 35U 


Language matrix 


<jyii\ (>»l^>Jl 


Language outputs 


Xj^Aj CjL>j3K* 


Language retardation 


tS^iJJI >uii 


Language skill 


i-^AJJl Sjl+II 


Language symbols 


L^iUl jyj\ 


Language usage 


aui JUxwt 


Lapse 


iJj Toy* 


Lapse of memory 


Uii t ^_, 


Lapsus 


iJj *Sji» 


Lapsus calami 


JB U j t <J5 B_ji* 


Lapsus linguae 


uU iJj 


Lapsus memoriae 


Sj^lj 3ju tiii* i^$-> 


Laryngology 


5*>Jl>JI ll»Oi> 


Laryngoplegia 


3j^>Jl Jli 


Laryngotomy 


jJl>J| JLojjLiI 4ai»* 


Larynx 


S^^Jl 


Lasting 


ijjljjj—) niUJ 


lateralistion 


4jjjL>- <n'nji> 


Learning 


(JkJi 


Learning ability 


,0^1 > SjjiJl 


Learning/abstract 


j^JipkUi 


Learning/associative 


iljd'ilji JwljSJb pluJI 


Learning/blind | ^ ^ 



Learning by conditioning 


^jAJl^l 


Learning by doing 


JwJbjJUUl 


Learning/collateral 


•lu 1 1_ x»Lo* flu 


Learning/discriminative 


l$J£wJI aluJl 


Learning/distributed 


£j rf l« 


Learning/insightful 


jl,.ou.j*JU JLuJI 


Learning/mechanical 


/UfhtH 


Learning/observational 


u^^UL^LoJI 


Learning/part 


iijj>jJlj aluJl 


Learning/programmed 


^b>)l (JUSJI 


Learning/selective 


^tti^i (JuJi 


Learning/ serial 




Learning/ trial and error 


IkiJIj DjUJU fluJl 


Learning/verbal 


^ilJ lr luJl 


Learning/visual 


^5^1 (JUDI 


Learning/whole 


ijKII ^l^b fJUsJI 


Left 


^i tJ L« 


Left handed 


^ jiOLu Jill) j-rfSl 


Left cerebral hemisphere 


^tiia-i 


Legastenia 


Ojl+o luJ> obyue 


Lexical 


oljji* 


Lexical acquisition 


ciljjill V L-3SI 


Lexical content 


objill tSjI*J 


Lexical gap 


<j3ljji» Sj^3 


Lexical meaning 


^Ijji,^ 



<j**ft61*4lt 



Lexical pathology 


Lobji. tlk-wi 


Lexical relation ships 


iuljji, uiilSiU 


Lexical synthesis 


oljjill iJLJjj 


Lexicalization 


(jSbji* jaxC 


Linear 


at* 


Linear system 


(iii) *Ai. \,j££* 


Linear construction 


*A± iuSjj 


Linguistic 


JyS 


Linguistic analysis 


iS^ii Jj1>j 


Linguistic codes 


LjAUI^jJI 


Linguistic classification 


(JyilJl tJuirfuJI 


Linguistic communication 


JyUJl JLxttl 


Linguistic competence 


Lyui IjM 


Linguistic creativity 


tyi d* 1 


Linguistic data 


oyaii ^ulji 


Linguistic development 


lijAUiyJl 


Linguistic inputs 


4jyJ i^Mi-a. 


Linguistic outputs 


4jj*I ol^iw 


Linguistic performance 


(JyUJl ^IjSl 


Linguistic psychology 


CS^ilJl y-AJJI |JC 


Linguistic relativity 


4jj*UI lu^JJl 


Linguistic universals 


Lyaji ouyi 


Linguistic determinism 


Sj^AllI <JM->,ll 


Linguistics 


auifje 


Lips 


oliiJI 


Lips reading 


oULSJl BtljS 


Lisp 


£} t£> UUl *^ 


Lisper 


£ll 


Little 


j^> 



Little brain 


£»&J| 


Little language 




Lobe 


(^Lj) yai 


Lobe/frontal 


ts+rtJl u*«JI 


Lobe/occipital 


(ijHJl yrfwJI 


Lobe/parietal 


(5jIjl»ji yaiJi 


Lobe/temporal 


^JusJI yaiJl 


Logic 




Logical 


Jjii** t^ak'it 


Logical memory 


SjSij t(J ikili^iJi 


Logical -syntactical 
operations 


4-ulLuil 4jfc>aJI olxLjJl 


Logical thinking 


^^ 


Logoneurosism 


f !>t£]| V U* 


Logopedics 


u^ijji ^iUj «-.ijj 


Logorrhea 


JIAII 


Long 


Jot 


Long term memory 


li-ill ilyt ij\j 


Long vowels 


*JyUl oJI^-Jl 


Longitudinal 


Jott5-»»i>j'«J> 


Low 


^»J 


Low frequency 


ijHj ■'■'J 3 


Low vowels 


iitiyi cull^aJI 


Luxury 


jsij 


Luxury vocabulary 


SjJIj oljji* 



*$4>*ft&b*4H 



M 


Manic 


^r* t>*j* 


Manic -depressive psychosis 


^lijTilj o-^Jl uUJ 


Marasmic child 


^ 1 jjjl JikJI 
(( ijUJI JikJI) 


Marasmic 


(.U Jlj* 


Mass 


£**. liljS 


Mass communication 


^L»Jl jLxrtl 


Mass media 


^Ul»JI JU3MI JJL.J 


Massed practice 


BjSjil S-jUll 


Matrix 


a^ t -^u 


Matrix sentence 


i^UiU* 


Matrix string 


<jjL> ii-iJL) 


Meaning 


iJ* ^ 


Meaning clues 


^1 ~l^> 


Meaning/connotative 


i>^ J** ' ^y 1 *-* ^ 


Meaning/whole 


JL*?I ji ^1 ^1 


Meaningful 


SJ^j <U 1 (ji** jj 


Meaningful discovery 
learning 


^1 .ju^w fjuai 


Meaningful learning 


^1 ^ fiisJi fJ-aJi 


Meaningful reception 
learning 


^1 JUl_t. fiOJl 


Mecenephalon 


L_,jSl jUjJI 


Mechanical 


/^K*. 


Mechanical dyslalia 


jSjilS*!! Jkill j-* 


Mechanical stimulants 


4j£LulfLu CjIjJJl. 


Mediate 


.k-ji» 'kj-.J 


Mediating mechanism 


iitu-jSJl ^1 


Mediation model 


J^yii ^1 


Mediationist behaviorism 


ij^yi L^y-Ji 



Medulla oblongata 


Jitu-JI^UJI 


Melody 


r 


Melody stage 


uuJl *1>jJ 


Melomania 


^yS-jll o*y 


Mimesis 


**y» ouwi 


Memory 


-0/0 


Memory ability/auditory 


jflaJi ^ SjjSJi 


Memory disorder 


^j^-JljSjiJl 


Memory/immediate 


SjSIjJI v ljk-»l 


Memory/immediate 


^u^ 


Memory levels 


SjSlill objl-u 


Memory mechanism 


5/ljJl oUT 


Memory span 


S_^liJl ,Ja. 


Memory system 


j5J5JI (1& 


Memory tracers 


3/IJJl jUl 


Memory/visual 




Mental 


^'^ 


Mental abilities 


iJiiJI Ci.lj.uJI 


Mental attitude 


^ oL>ul 


Mental concept 


^r^* 


Mental content 


^ttJl tfjI»-JI 


Mental defect 


Jit. ^J> ji J>S S 


Mental function 


LJi£ 4ijk} 


Mental image 


XJi* 5jj^» 


Mental life 


iaJiJl5U»Jl 


Mental organization 


JJ-IlpefeaM 


Mental pathology 


LdUl ^lj*Sl fi* 


Mental process/higher 


UJI LJiJI cjUUJI 



,^>*Jtvi>Ui4tt 



Mental retardation 


JBLJI tiliOUl 


Mental set 


^l^l 


Mental structure 


SJiJl ^uJl 


Metabolism 


(tUJIj fXfl\) ^fy 


Metainformation 




Metalanguage 




Metalalie 


ol^oU <V3l »ISU«JI 


Metalinguistics 


iilJI j Jji>JJU <_k.L> 


Methathesis 


^UJI JjUJI 
(UJ) ^l£il 


Method 


Vj U ^ 


Method/alphabetic 


ijJjjoSlI SijjJaJI 


Method/analytical 


i^UUlJl iijjiJl 


Method/case study 


*JL»JI i-ljj Aljjp 


Method/cathartic 


~**iy=) £</SJl *i>jt 


Method/chewing-speaking 


iS *-al\ jkill iSjjt 


Method/cross-section 


Lijrf-ll lu^Jl 


Method/heuristic 


4jJLi£^l ii^kll 


Method/kinesthetic 




Method/longitudinal 


sjjfcjiib^ji 


Method/manual 


f-J' t« *oaJ' *-<jJ=J1 


Method/narrative 


4ij>Jl t Olj^l !!;> 



Method/observational 


iiwoui &*> 


Method/oral 


S«ljf)»li£Jl fAS XjJ, 


Method/phonetic 


^u^oJi iij^yi 


Mixed 


iJSi^ 


Mixed alalia 


yjii^ jjyt l^w 


Mixed disorders 


ifcJjLK* ol^l^kil 


Mixed language 


ikllSK* iiJ 


Mixed rhinolalia 


Hhl">, # Sy^w 


Model 


jl> ^jj*; 


Modulation 


<*>-") M 'J*** 


Mogigraphy 


oliSJl 


Mogilalia 


o^l^jid^ 


Mogilexy 


s.ijjli j Jj^ji djj 


Monologue 


BUf-U* t^lj jl_j* 


Monotone 


pjLC IfJ^Jl jljtl tjljtl 


Monotonic 




Monotonic voice 


i_ijpi cjj-«JI 


Moron 


jlJJI) o^Ul JiWl 


Morpheme 


olj I>^AJ So*-j jirf! 


Morphologic 


J^> 


Morphologic structure 





*M>*tt4>b*4B 



Morphology 




Morse code 


o-U*" ( W ^ 


Motive 


p 


Motor 


^.JSj* 


Motor alalia 




Motor aphasia 


ijS>Jl (l^lttl) i-**JI 


Motor area of speech 


j.}l£U Ij?j>J\ *Still 


Motor center of speech 


f-^SiS ^j>i\ ySJ\ 


Motor coordination 


J^jp\ 


Motor dyslalia 


Jj»H jkiJI j-* 


Motor dysphasia 


5^1 (Lj^l) 3-*»JI 


Motor program 


(/^- £^ 


Motor regulation 


^r^" 


Motor Skills 


l£j> oljL^ 


Motor speech disorders 


IjS^JI f *SJI ^IjkAl 


Mouth 


r* 


Mouth cavity 


^jtiiS ,_ijyhi)l 


Multi 


^ 0*0. 


Multilingual 


oUDI ja«1* 


Multilingualism 


^UUI jj*I 


Multimethodical 


jsijyi ji ja&ji jja 


Multisymbolic signal 


jjmII >jH oli SjLaj 


Mute 


ol»L» if&l iy>' 


Mute/deaf 


r^i'H 


Mute/hearing 


e^^i 



Muteness 


o-> cctfS- »=— 


Mutism 


•£jj| iCju-»JI ly-jiJI 


Mutism/hysterical 


liji*— *JI wv»Jl 


Myelin 


gUJl 


Myelin sheath 




Myelinization 


fliJJb JjjjjJl 


N 


Narrow 


J*-* 


Narrow localization concept 


j^l ^ydi ji^i. 


Narrow localization concept 
of brain functions 




Narrow vowels 


Uj-iJI oJl^oJI 


Nasal 


tf™ 


Nasal cavity 


^Sl ujy^jl 


Nasal tone 


C«1SJI 


Nasalized vowels 


iU*!l oJlj-JI 


Natal 


(^yij Kijjj, 


Native 


<i>'^ 


Nativism 


0>iJl 


Natural 


^ 


Natural language 


^LUJ 


Natural shout 


^tW- 


Natural system 


(/^f 1 ^ 


Negative 


^ J - 


Negative conditioning 


^Hr! 


Negative pratice 


iJUl i-jUl 


Negative reinforcement 


i_JL. j^ 


Negative response 


ZjJLi 4jL>CLtfi 



*$*>*tt&U*4ft 



Negative transfer 


l_jui juci'ii 


Neologism 




Neology 


t 0JjJL*Jl oU£JI jjy 

tfyl A;A*J 


Nerve 


^ 


Nerve pathoway 


(J *~ae jju 


Nerve/cranial 


12) ijiUjJi v UcSi 


Nerve/peripheral 


*it*»Ji uU'ii 


Nervosism 




Nervosity 


i_. 


Nervous 


G^ 1 sr H 1 * 'l^ 


Neuro 


k_>l_flcMlj jLu* u.taf 


Neurocybernetics 




Neurolinguistics 


Ulli v L»*i ^ 


Neuropsychology 


vL^Sii x^y^ 


Neurology 


vL^xVlflc 


Neuron 


L^^ t ^ 


Neurosis 


yLi 


Neurotic 


^^ 


Neutral 


oLj^JI J* tJjUl. 


Neutral environment 


5jl>L»v. ilu 


Neutral stimulus 


All*, jA, 


Neutral vowels 


ojLchJI ouil^oJl 


Neutralization 


JjU3 ^a**; 



Neutrotic lipsing 


»bb 


Neurophysiology 


V U^I JSlfcj fJb 


Neurophysiology 
classification 


voliuueu A>i)t_>LafiSl 


Nersery 


(iJLa>ji) j^ii *l»j. 


Negative practice therapy 




Nominal 


*~» 


Nominal aphasia 


<j*_"4l(LjljSl) i_^»Jl 


Nominal value 


4jawI i*ji 


New 


■»*•**■ 


New stereotype dynamics 


»A>A> iikjj CjLjjUjJ 


News 


jUii 


Non 


A^ 4trt J ^ 


Non associative thinking 


^yJajljlJl jjtf jj£illl 


Non phonetic words 




Non reversal shift 


tr -ic jac JpJ 


Non sense syllables 


(jJaII ifcjOC £-bliu 


Non syllabic open 


< ! wJ 3 i, jjjfi <s-yuu 


Non verbal communication 


^ji* JUJI 


Norm 


jJjL«j 'jLi*» 


Normal 


»|_j-» i^jLc i^SjLyu 


Normalization 


LjU t(jr A)l J** 


O 


Observation 1 XL*-** 



tf$b*tt4>U<4ft 



Observational 


i^tsUUjLCU 


Observational data 


ifc-OUl oULm 


Observational method 


ik*^ll ii^k 


Obsession 


(j|^>j~il) o^5~'} 


Obsessional ideas 


V-'j-jj^' 


Obsessional neurosis 


i/^J V 1 ** 


Obsessional thinking 


<sAy}j&z 


Occipital 


^lii nsy$ 


Occipital cortex 




Occipital lobe 


(^UjIJ) (i^ai o*ti\ 


Oesophagus 


W 


Oesophageal 


(cSjli <» <yo« °>- 


Oligo 


>>>* 'LH?IU *Ji" 


Oligoencephaly 


(ji-P ^ <_i*i. 


Oligophasia 


Jbu Ljjlii) Jji»Jl 


Oligophrenia 


Ji-JlM^W 


Oligophrenic 


JLJI JLj*^ 


Omission 




Omission disorders 




One 


^lj 


One class signals 


<*jjJl »ja*j BjLil 


One factors concept 


j>.|jj| J*Ul f^fi* 


Onomatophobia 


»UJ ^U-(ciiy-) Uji 



Onomatopoeia 




Ontogeny 




Open 


&** 


Open construction 


(i*J) i»jtt, ol^jj 


Open minded 


ji*ft ^ij 


Operant 


^1*1 


Operant behaviour 


</«*l ^ 


Operant conditioning 


^WiW 


Operant cerebration 


^i^iyajii 


Opposite 


^.jU. 


qpposite hemisphere 


^l*. j^ 3jS l-A-V 


Option 


jLJ. ^L^l 


Optional 


SUli* iJjLjii-l 


Optic 


^ nij-« 


Optic image 


i^j-ojoj^o 


Optic lobes 


^LjrfJl ol-o«Jt 


Optic memory 


4^-aJI Sj^lJJI 


Optic nerve 


tSj-fluil I.I fH 


Optic phenomenon 


Oj-oj 5j»Us 


Oral 


^^ Kij*i 


Oral aphasia 


OjiJJI (bj^l) W*J' 


Oral communication 


^jiJjl JUj* 


Oral examination 


^jW 6^ 


Oral lapse 


ijjiiSji* 


Oral memory 


Lyi£ Sj^l j 


Oral method 





,$*>*Jt&b*4K 



Oral presentation 


jyi O^jB. 


Oral reading habit 




Oral stage 


i«AJl lU^ll 


Oral text 


4y±&±y 


Organ 


*$<.}** 


Organ/auditory 


C*J\ tU*i 


Organ/speech 


j.tdSJ) *l_ici 


Organic 




Organic changes 


<iya£ oIjjjw 


Organic disease 


iSyi*o*j» 


Organic disorder 


ijyafi v_jI^JcLhoI 


Organism 




Organismic 


(i^A* 


Organismic behaviour 


cS^oft J^L> 


Organismic concept of 
development 




Orientation 




Orientational disorders 


i^l^il obljk^l 


Orientational errors 


*i*L>Jl .Lk*i 


Orthography 


OlS-Sl f-jB 


Orthography 


OUSl a*lji 


Orthographic dyslalic errors 




Otolaryngology 





Outputs 


-l*>. 


Over 


»-»Vo '<3i» '^ 


Over-anxiety 


■>iij3D 


Over-compensation 


jjlj (jA^yu 


Over-development 


3*jj| SjL} 


Over-learning 


t^iydl <><>-*i fJUj 


Overloaded 




Overprotection 


(JikU) SjiljJl oL*JI 


Overreaction 


jSlj J-i Jj 


Oxylalia 


f 3lSII *sj* 


Oxyphonia 


SjJIjJI o^flJI 


P 


Palate 


iu* t( >uii ju- 


Palate/cleft 


dl»Jl ipjjyMI ili>Jl 


Palate/hard 


vJLJl Ji>Jl 


Palatesoft 


^1 iU>Jl 


Pali 




Palilalia 




Palindrome 


|j> \jz iu* ji i*is 


Palinlexia 




Paliphrasia 





^<>*Jt6Ui4ft 



Paradigm 




Paradigmatic disorders 




Paradigmatic systems 


IjjAUl »jUi)l Ajjkit 


Paradox 


iSjUj iILsSlii* 


Paradoxicality 


iLAjULlJI 4JL> yll 


Para- 


i i_jJL>o t jLk (jiju SibLi 


Paragraph ia 


Ll3£Jl J Jlo-i 


Paralalia 


f»->LSJf j JIjjI 


Paralexia 


S»Ij«JI j Jl-ui 


Paralinguistics 


ijLvLJl iilJI i-,ljJ 


Paralysis 


J^ 


Paralysis/cerebral 


^JU 


Paralysis/glossolabial 


^U (jjii JLS 


Paralysis/phonetic 


Jsr° J 1 * 


Parameters 


^jij o^UU* tol^Sp 


Paraphasia 


(L>jlii) 4,..,j>.ll k-^-La* 


Parietal 


<ij'^- 


Parietal lobe 


(£LjU) lSj!a»JI oeiS\ 


Partial 


</**■ 


Partial assimilation 


(lii) <uj»- iJiu< 


Partial equivalent 


<**»> <y>* -"'j* 


Partial semantic hypothesis 


LjljjfJI iJldl S^JjiJl 


Passage 


dL.c^ 


Passive 


J.13. t( ^ 


Pathology 


U^jJjSb tyel^SlI fie 


Pathology/mental 


Jui«ji u»i^i fi* 



Pathology/speech 


r ^£Jl t^i ,Jb 


Pathomechanism 


4*Ajil oLftl 


Pattern 


JSLi (iw 


Pattern/behaviour 


^y-jiiujji 


Pattern/practice 


JsUjjl J* yjj*j 


Pattern/symbolic 


(ijjjJlU 


Pause 


uHy tiiSj 


Perception/auditory 


,y**~' illjjl 


Perception/depth 


j*OI JljJl 


Perception disorder 


Jljj-^1 v ljki| 


Perceptual differentiation 


./Ij^ljiUslI 


Perceptual distortion 


^IjjlDjASjJ ,J\j»j\ 


Performance 


*iji 


Performance analysis 


»IjS| JJ*5 


Performance evaluation 


tljSl h,lj!3 


Performance/intellectual 


j^M ^^UC tljj 


Performance rate 


*bSl Jj*. 


Performance test 


*IjS| jU5»I 


Performance/linguistic 


(iyj *ijt 


Peripheral 


J*** '(J^J 13 - '«j> 


Peripheral nervous system 


^^kissjJl ,_yJutfL«JI jLf*JI 


Peripheral speech disorders 




Penetration 




Preservation 


Xjjlii iOJjUj 


Personality 


i^^iJI 


Personality/autistic 


w "^° 



*$*>*# 4>U<4it 



Personality defect 


iwUsAll Jli. 


Personality disintegration 


i^j^Jl J£i3 


Personality disorder 


iufli-ill ^IjLrfl 


Personality/manic 


4J-.J* l&gjt^j, 


Personality/neurotic 


<*U*4^ 


Persuation 


t U\ 


Persuation therapy 


^13% £>UI 


Phatic communion function 




Phenomenon 


5^Up 


Phonasthenia 


vi-^Jl J« 


Phonation 


o^Jl £l>! 


Phonematic ear 


L»y£Jl oJ^I 


Phonematic speech 


i«^Jl ol^l 


Phoneme 




Phoneme organization 


(^IjrfSl) oUoiyJI. .Aku 


Phoneme realization 


(diljj.SH) ^Lujijl jLyUJ 


Phonemic boundary 


^A* 


Phonetic 


s^ V 


Phonetic analysis 


^^Ji JJL*aJl 


Phonetic transcription 


XjJj-Jl oLSJl 


Phonetic errors 


iyj^s tlka-i 


Phonetic structure disorders 


iuj-oJl 


Phonetic zero 


j^ljLcJI 


Phonetics 


^Lyj^JI < c^Sl flc 


Phoniatrics 


f 3l£JI .Lie! l&jSybj 



Phonic 


Jy 


Phonic substantiation 


iuj-aJl (»UjJl) SjUI 


Phonic substantiation 
signals 


iJSU iujj, LJLcj ^IjLtl 


Phonic transformation 


^1 J^^sJl 


Phonological components 


JiyA\ pl&Jl oUj£* 


Phonology 


oij-»Si ofctfej fj* 


Phonopathy 




Phonophobia 


ol^l oljj. 


Phonoreception 


^3-JI Jl^l 


Phrase 


SjL* 


Phrase structure 


^JJjLlC i-UO J 


Phrase structure component 


OjUJl v^jill u^ 


Phrase structure grammar 


*ijL«il v** 1 ^ 1 -^Iji 


Phrase structure rule 


lijUJl vy^ 1 6>Jl5 


Phraseology 


ajxu iil i ujJLii 


Physiological phonetics 


^^xj^' ^Lhj-«II 


Physiological stuttering 




Physiology 


*UlcSi oBlfcj ^ 


Pia mater 




Pictograph 




Picture interpretation test 


jj-all jj..j«j jIjlLs-1 


Picture discussion 


jJ-aJb JjJL»jJl iLjt 


Pitch breaks 


iuj-Jl ^kll J J^ljiJl 


Place 


^.ois. 



*$*>*tt<£>U<4ft 



Place of articulation 


jkdi^ 


Place therapy 


w^UUj-iUl 


Plosives 




Poetic function 


uu i iJ ^i\ u^yi 


Poetic rhyme 


d>y£ g*~> 


Poetics 


o^'fl* 


Polygenesis 


SjjjOU Jj-al 


Polygenesis theory 


djo-sii Jj-*Si L>; 


Polyglot 


oUUI jajO. 


Polyglotism 


^UUI jjlO 


Polylingual 


oUIJI jj*U 


Polyphone 


ViUJJI JJ-S, cJj^ 


Polyphonic 


ol^Sl jjmS. 


Polysemantic 


^Ull^U 


Polysemous 


^UU.*!. 


Poly sensual 1 


ir .Lt>-')ll jjjCU 


Pons 


j (Jjjli 5>J) »>3JI 


Pornographomania 


ijujjl kbSJl tj-j* 


Posty test 


iSJLIU jLjI>I 


Potency 


Ijklj t Sy 


Potencial ability 


*i.l5 5jji 


Potencial response 


*^l£JI ^L»o-*ii 


Potencial sentence 


Zi«lS ii*»- 


Potencial word 


SmI£ US 


Positive transfer 


^jll JlBl"*! 


Positive valence 


k-uk-^Xl jilSoJl 



Pragmatic function 


(Ul)l 


Predisposition 


Ji* tiJjlJ tj>L» jIjjlL-I 


Precision organization 


3**-» fi^ 3 


Preintellectual speech 


jiSilJI JJ U f 5tf 


Prelinguistic stage 


lUJJl JJ L, y>j. 


Prenatal 


•j^yi jj 


Prenatal behaviour 


(^jUUkJI .iJjL. 


Prenatal influence 


S^IJJ^b 


Prenatal period 


j^jll JJ U 5j3s 


Preopertional stage 


C,L>)oUk«Jl JJ U ~il>j, 


Preparatory stage 


)ojj,j.>Jjl ii>yt 


Presenility 


ii.^iu_JJI JJ 


Prespeech intellect 


f MSJl a*.^. JJ U jjjStf 


Pressure disorders 


JuJjl obl>-»l 


Pretest 


»yjj^l 


Preventive 


c? u v'j 


Prief psychoanalysis 


j^IiJl ^^Jull Jol*jJI 


Primal 


^i i^j t^Jji 


Primary 


^Uui t(/ -U ^ji 


Primary ability 


iJji »j J 


Primary code 


;L-L,i5>i 


Primary cortical 


ijjSi 4*3*11 jbuii 


Primary language 


iilJl (l»-y5j) iJjl **J 


Primary meaning 


s r ,L, 'j iu 



^wt^Mtt 



Primary mental abilities 


iJjSl ^UjJI ofjjuUl 


Process 


^u 


Process attitude 


LJjjJl ^>J <*}* 


Process/higher mental 


Lk^U^U 


Process/socialization 


^Uij.^1 gksi) u** 


Process/symbolic 


<&j ~<M 


Problem 


*]££. 


Problem analysis 


iKAll JA*3 


Problem check list 


l=J yssl\ jljj*j 1*113 


Problems/developmental 


j*iii otAS^ 


Problems/psycho-physical 


L^>ui>o5li^ 


Problems solving 


c*SAll> 


Product oriented 


r^lllll jm <J-JJ 


Productive thinking 


roill jiSiUl 


Productivity 


<A»-bL;) 


Proficiency 


5jl^ t ottf 


Proficiency guidelines 


4<USU i-iuyJI ±>>iJl 


Proficiency test 


i,liSJi jUi-i 


Prophylactic 


^»3 


Prosodic analysis 


(tf*^) J^J* J^ 


Prosodic ataxia 


Qj^kjJl) j^jkUl j_ou 


Prosodic features 




Prosody 


LuUjj i*_. 


Prosodic disorders 


(Hio 4,3 ) -^j* ^W'>-*i 


Prompting 


<j*& 


Positive conditioning 


^l^ij^i 


Positive degree 


<wj* **jJ 



Positive reinforcement 


^bNtfljottll 


Positive word 


*«l*i! **tf 


Pseudo- 




Pseudobulbar plasy 




Pseudo conditioning 


£iUJl 1,1^1 


Pseudographia 


"J jjjy* LU£) ojtf Ltitf 


Pseudolalia 


^1 ^ r ^ 


Psychopathy 


j^-iii J^Alcl '(j-^il <j£j* 


Psycholinguistic 


lijii 1+Jt oljUi-l 


Psycholinguistics 


lij»Ul y-ijJl J* 


Psychological 
environment 


5^,3^ 


Psychological linguistics 


^j-JUJl iiill fie 


Psychological phonetics 


^1 ol^Sl ,Je 


Psychologist 


iT" ii i^ La *' 


Psycholinguist 


ST^ ^-^ c^ 1 ""* 1 


Psychology of language 


lilJl ,_yx> A& 


Psychophonasthenia 


sT^ l* 3 ^ J^ 





Quantitative distortion 




Qualitative distortion 


U&. JiA3) ^ ^ilj^l 


Queer 


Jlrf C tt-JUj^ 


Questionnaire 


jU>JL«il tftljtU 



*$4**ft6U»4ft 



iSjk-\ JjjUJ) *^to 



A 


Abordage n.m. 


r Lik^! 


- aerien 


iSy* tljlk.pl 


Accident n.m. 


a,u ^u 


- aerien 


iSy? ^->l>- 


- d'avion 


6 I> ijU 


- de navigation 


i*>U -ioU- 


Accord n.m. 


Sjitijl tjUjI 


- bilateral 


«LiU3 ijilijl 


- de transit 


j^jl£ Lj5U;| 


- de transport 


JiJ ijSUJl 


- multilateral 


.JljtSl 5jj*L. o5U;l 


Acte n.m. 




- d'hostilite 


^•■« J*« 


- de navigation 


i*:*. SjI+A 


- de piraterie 


3Juojj J** 


Aerien adj. 


^I_j* i^ 


accident - 


<£>* ^ j1j - 


assurance - ne 


^j* u-b 


base - ne 


*j^»- Sjjsli 


circulation - ne 


<sy? j*- 


collision - ne 


£y» Jjikdl 


compagnie - ne 


I> MP 



controle - 


Ajyf. 4j5!jj 


droit - 


d>yr uy& 


espace - 


^y*. Jbkj 


flotte - ne 


iSy* J>J 


forces - nes 


hyr^j 


hypotheque -ne 


oljSUJl o»j 


lignes - nes 


4j ajw Jsjki- 


navigation - ne 


lj,y> O-^U 


piraterie - ne 


1jy>- 4ju0j9 


port- 


cS>*^ 


raid - 


L^SjU 


transport - 


4y ^ 


flotte - ne 


(J$JJ- J}b_<l 


Aeroclub n.m. 


OIjjUI tijU 


Aerodrome n.m. 


jU« 


- militaire 


(J_>£— * jUx. 


Aerodynamique n.f 


tijSI^I IS^UyjJI jJ* 


Aerodynamique adj. 


^y^j* ',j<w 


freins - s (ou aerofrein) 




Aerodyne n.m. 


ijSLbUT 


Aero freins s n.m. pi. 


iuU^LJl 



tUJjUJl - ^ dM< **/• r- 1 o-=0 



*$4>*tt6Ui4ft 



1 Aerogare n.f 


jLtai <k>« 


Aeroglisseur n.m. 
( ou naviplane ou 
Hovercraft) 


i.\y 


Aerologie n.f 


t_hUJI fi* t.y-J\ fie 


Aeromaritime adj. 


<Sj*i 4y? 


Acronaute n.m. 


jll^ c 5U 


Aeronautique n.f. 




- civile 


iujj *jy? i>-t>U 


- civile internationale 


iJjj iijjj o^>- i>!>U 


Aeronautique adj. 




cartes - s 


Oj^Jl 4j-!>U) lulji. 


industrie 


cjIjJUJI ^Uuj 


Aeronaval adj. 


iij*^ 'J>> 


base-e 


0^*0 o^> SaelS 


Aeronef n.m 


Sjilt 1(3}* v>f^* 


Aeronomie n.f 


WUi tL^ 


Aerophotographie n.f 


<4y? s.y* 


Aeroplane n.m 


5j Jlt 


Aeroport n.m. 


jit* 


Aeroportable adj. 


I** J**i 


Aeroport re adj. 


l>*J^ 


forces - es 


1^ *J^*»« olji 


AeVoporturaire adj. 


jlklL jUs. 


taxe- 


jlkllL^ 


Aeropostal adj. 


(i^l -H^ 1 * J 1 * 1 * 


Aerospatial adj. 


^Ui^j* 



Aerostat n.m. (non 
scientifique de montgolfiere 
ou ballon captif) 


jllu. 


Aerostation n.f 




Aerostier n.m. 


jUaU jJIS 


Aerosurface n.f 




Aerotechnique n.f. 


oljlUaJI **Uuo CjLuB 


Aeroterrestre adj. 


irV^** 


Aerothermodynamique n.f. 




Aerotransporte adj. 


l^J^ 


Affretement n.m. 


jUli-l 


- aerien 


SjJlJs jl ■*.'". ill 


Agence n.f 


iJlfj 


- de voyages 


jU-i iJii'j 


Agent n.m. 


6^J^ 


- de fret 


6^JI J^j 


- de navigation aerienne 


ij^JI i*5Ul y^ 


Agrement n.m. 


JjJ uUitfl 


Aiguiiieur du ciel 


S a *'j* '(J>»- v^'j* 


Aile n.f 


^ 


Aileron n.m. 


&* 


Air n.m. 


yt 


armee de 1'- 


ytJi c ^ 


hotesse de 1'- 


SjJliJl IbJu 


prendre 1*- 


CBlcjU. 


regles de I'- 


^»J| Jk£ljJ 



*$*>*tt&fa4ft 



Aire n.f. 


1>L 


- d'atterrissage 


JajL^j t-bj^fll 1>L> 


- de lancement (d'un 
astronef) 


*^>) J5UJI o-L, 
(iuLii 


- de manoeuvres 


oljUU i*L 


- de stationnement 


•Jjij i>L# 


Alerte n.f 


^jl^ IjUlU Cjtjil 


Altimetre n.m. 


glB/fl ^Lji« 


Altitude n.f 


jk tfUjjl 


- alerte 


ji>ju i-i^-ji-u y* 


- minimum 


£UBj*J ^Jl J* 


basse - 


(jiuLVJu _jl* 


haute - 


LxU 'ijj-i t ^j^ y* 


Anemometre n.m. 


gj\ y^U* 


Approche n.f 


v l^ 


-avue 


j^i. v ij5ii 


Aptitude n.f 


u>\ 


certificat d'- 


y.i SJ l^ 


Assistance n.f 


3j*Li* n_»U-»j uL>»Jl 


- aerienne 


<jy». jIkjI 


Assurance n.f 


c^b 


- aerienne 


lij* Ch»k 


Astronaute n.m. 


iLiiJl -1U t*LiiJl jJIj 


Astronauticien n.m. 


LyLaiJI 


Astronautique n.f 


iuLoi L>}U 


Astronef n.m 


ijiui 5jS> 


Atmosphere 


>* 


- calme 


L5Jl*>* 



- turbulente 


v>-»*>*- 


Attaque n.f 


fl** 


aerienne 


<£yrfy*» 


Atterrissage n.m. 


djji iJ,j*» 


- force" 


tSjIjkil h#» 


-sans visibility 


*&Xi*»2* 


- technique 


J®**** 


autorisation d' - 


h^iiu oi| 


terrain d'- 


J-*#* 


train d' 


i-j^JI e,^ 


Atterrisseurs n.m. pL. 


Jy^JI 3>*i 


Autonomie du vol 




Autorisation n.f 


Oil 


- d'atterrissage 


■Ljj^Jb u j| 


- de decollage 


£>13}L 6 J1 


- de vol 


U I>JU oJJ 


Aviateur n.m. 


M> 


Aviation n.f 


lij* L>^U toljit 


- agricole 


^* y i> 


-Civile 


^ u l> 


- commerciale 


lSj 1 ^ uL^ 


- d'affaires 


JUcSl oljet 


- de combat 


J12JI ot>> 


- de reconnaissance 


£lU-"!il o»jJ» 


- de tourisme 


o-L-Jl 5ljJ» 


- embarquee 


Oj*JI yljJ» 


- legere 


L-iai> yljet 


- marchande 


(JjbfO olj^ 



,$*>*tt&b>4!t 



- militaire 


l5j£-* o'jrft 


- navale 


<£>** ob^ 


- postale 


li-Mj* u'jjt 


- privee 


^L* 6 I> 


- sportive 


^l0 6l> 


- generale 


f l*ul> 


base d'- 


^Ijjt Sj^li 


compagnie d'- 


ol>^ 


lignes d'- 


61^1 hjhJ- 


terrain cf- 


jU« 


code de I'- civile 


^JjJl yl^JJl 0^15 


organisation internationale 
de 1'- civile (OIAC) 


(jl oUJ 4-J)Jl iakill 


Avion n.m. 


SjSlfc 


- affrete 


Sjj»-Ll_u SjiLb 


- a helices 


ylj. Olj 


- a moteur 


dj^vlJ Ojills 


- a reaction 


iSliiSjSIL 


- bimoteur 


u^*-v SjlUs 


- biplace 


(^j^jujj Ojilt 


- biplan 


oaaL- olj Bjllt 


- cargo 


£>jw Sjilt 


- citerne 


£*^*~° »pU» 


- de bombardement (ou 
bombardier) 


OjJlis 4 iJLai SjJUj 


- de chasse (ou chasseur) 


Bjjlk* Sjjllj 


- de combat 


JlWSjJU, 


- d'observation 


j-oj SjjIL t ILSl^ Sjllt 



- de reconnaissance 


£>lkwi Sjllt 


- de tourisme, 


*x>Lj-. Sjills 


- de transport 


JiJBjJlt 


- Leger 


iiuLi. ijjUs 


- monomoteur 


•A»l_j Jj-»^j 5jJlt 


- Monoplace 


j^lj^SjML 


- Monoplan 


Jl»-Ij ~k- olj 5jJU» 


-nolise" (ou charter) 


HjjfcbL« OjJlt 


- planeur 


<J*\j2> Bjllt 


- multiturbine 


oUi*Jl 5jj*L» Bjilt 


- quadrimoteur 


olSj^» ,VjW SjjUj 


-supersonique 


^o Pw*l OjjLb ; O &^JI 

o^J. 


-de lignes regulieres 


J ? h"'. t JU^}.^ 5 Jit 


- fusee 


iLii.JljLo OjjUj 


defense contre - ( D.C.A.) 


oljJLfcJJ jL» ^.^U 


groupe d'- s (Escadrille,) 


oljJUa tJjw 


par- 


j*M J^ iSjSlkll, 


porte - s 


oljiUJl *LU 


Avionique n.f 


uljitJI oUj^j 


Avionnerie n.f 


Oljilkll >Juw 


Avionnette n.f 


ulSjU OjjjLo BjJUs 


Avionneur 


oljJUJI ^L. 


B 


Bagage n.m. 


i*X.I 'r 'fH» 


- s a mains 


OjA. Ollti 


-s accompagnes 


jJL-U SJilj, 3*ui 


- s enregistres 


?K .I AjuUI 



<$4>*tt&Mft 



-s assures 


"ilty, SjO»i 


Balisage n.m. 


jltjl 


droit de 


jLJj! rJ 


feude 


jL *j! jy 


Balise n.f. 


jUjJ <*!lU 


Ballon n.m. 


jIIu. 


- meteorologique 


IjytiS jL>j5U jIU. 


Bande n.f 


£&l\ Sj-Lu 


Barotraumatisme n.m 


L$y>J\ JaiJJI 


Billet n.m. 


If* 


- de passage 


jX* 3/ J3 


Boite noire 


t |j^_, iJLc 


Bord n.m. 


iiU 


- d'attaque 


•_^>o> iiL> 


- d'attaque centrale 


*<£/• fj^ ^^ 


- d'attaque exterieure 


Lj>-jL> »_y>J» *iL> 


- d'attaque interieure 


LtJL>ij ,y*» yu- 


tableau de - 


SjUJI Lkj] 


Brevet n.m. 


5,1^ 


-d'aptitude 


LL^I Bjl^i 


Brouillard n.m. 


f u 


Bruit n.m. 


«|_0^_O i^xs*~b 


Brume n.f 


oU 


Bulletin n.m. 


43^ 


- de bagages 


1*1*1 «j_) 


c 


cabine n.f 


5jjj»I« t»j^> 


-du Piiote (ou Cockpit) 


JMMs* 


calcul n.m. 


V L** 



-de la distance 
franchissable 


OSUI iiLJl v 1 -** 
1^3 


-route 


V L-*JL j^kJI jjjj^ 


Cap n.m. 


l*3l 


Capacity n.f. 


4jLt t»jj5 iU\iS 


Carburant n.m. 


>h 


Cargo (avion-) 


^>vi a lylo 


Carte n.f 


<K> 


aeronautique 


O^iJl oOUl ikjjj. 


Catastrophe n.f. 


^is 


aerienne 


Ajjtf <."*jy* *jj\£ 


Celerite n.f 


^ 


Celeste adj. 


(ijU- 


corps- 


<J}U- |.>>- 


Cellule n.f (Ailes, fuselage) 




Certificat n.m 


SjI^ 


- d'aptitude 


IJUiSjL^ 


- d'immatriculation 


J^fwO JjL^ 


- de limitation de 
nuisance 


jl^l^^-3^ 


- de navigabilite 


i»}UlJ Ii»>U)l Jjl^i 


Chargement n.m. 


iljAJ- 


Charter n.m. (ou avion 
nolise) 


Sj^-tu*. S^lt 


Charteriser v.tr. 


ijiib j^B-bL-t 


Chasseur n.m 


DJjlk. SjSlfc 


Check list n.m. (liste des 
verifications) 


L> o3>UJI i«lli 


Circulation n.f 


jl9>» 'j*- 


- ae>ienne 


£>*..*!- 



*$c>*tt6b*4B 



- aerienne civile 


J>H$y»j~ 


- aerienne militaire 


lij£~£ 6yr jj~, 


Cockpit n.m 


jLUl 5_^j> 


Code n.m. 


j*j <-<jy^ tijj.i. 


de l'aviation civile 


jA\ oljAJl oy* 


Collision n.f 


r lji«l 


- aerienne 


<Sy*- .l-lkal 


Comite n.m. 


ii*j 


-juridique international de 
l'aviation 




Commandant de bord 


ojiUJl jili 


Commande n.f 


jjlt tSjLj 4«5L>J 


-s 


SjUJI S^*i 


- sde secours 


S«el>JI OjLiUl Sj^jfcl 


-s de vol automatique 


jii>Jj| j ^£>oll JJL.J 


dispositif de - 


p£>oJl jl+* 


Compas n.m. 


iLejj 


gyromagnetique 


LjIjj, <1^ 


Commissaire n.m 


(J0JIU tk-JjJu* 


Commission n.f 


ii»J 


-d'enquete 


A~o^ 


-internationale de 
navigation aerienne 


0-5U1J iJjjJI ii»JJl 

<<J»JI 


Compagnie n.f. 


*Sy* 


- aerienne 


Oljjt ii^i 


- aerienne a risques 


>ii* ^ij oijj. is> 



Com pte- rendu n.m. 


JO 23 


- de l'equipage 


f\U\yJu 


Conditions n.f pi. 


Jl^i « Jj^ 


-de vol 


jaUjJ^b 


-de vol anormales 


LjU jii. jiU; ijyjb 


-de vol dangereuses 


Sjiki- j^Uj ^i^jb 


-meteorologiques 


~*jy» Jl^>i 


Conference n.f. 


j*r 


- internationale de droit 
aerien 


uyW ^jJI jJjll 


Confort de vol 


J^lj- I*ljJI ijji 

3JL*jJI 


Congres n.m. 


j»'y 


-juridique international 
pour la reglementation de 
la locomotion aerienne 


J*n Jy™ y#i 


Conseil n.m. 


o^> 


-arabe de l'aviation civile 


ul>IJ ^1 U A*J\ 


Constructeur n.m. 


^ 


d'aeronef 


BjjLkll juU> 


Contrat n.m. 


JA£ 


-conclu a bord d'un avion 


SjJlt {£, (J l£ pjLi Jic 


de transport public 


fUJujS* 


Controle n.m 


M'j* 


- aerien 


*^S- ** 5, J J 


- d'a6rodrome 


jUJl <Jl^ 


- d'approche 


vb^l i?5lj* 


- regional 


-kn* M^ 


Controleur n.m. 


v5lj» 



<$*>*lt&U<4ft 



- aerien 


<sy* ^s 


- de vol (ou aiguilleur du 
del) 


* i y t i\ 0-3UI 


Convention n.f 


4\}Sli3l 


-ae>ienne internatioinale 


sjjj 4j^> Lsmi 


Coventionnel adj. 


J\J3\ 


expressions - les 




Conversations n.f pi. 


oUjI*, 


Cooperation n.f 


OjUj 


-entre compagnies 
aeriennes 




Coordination n.f 


^ 


Coordonnees geographiques 


4j3Ij*p- oLuljL>[ 


Copilote n.m 


oyi ^i— 


Corps celeste 


•ij^-p* 


Cosmographie n.f 




Cosmonaute n.m 


tUiJI J5lj c*UUI £>U 


Courbe n.f 


a^ 


- de consommation / 
distance 




-de consommation/temps 




Couloir aerien 


<£>*j" 


Couplemetre n.m. 


.Jj^aJI 0j4 y*l,UU 


Crime n.m. 


<-<>» 


-commis a bord d'un avion 





Croisieren.f 1 -. 

| ^j 


D 


Dlbarquement n.m. 


iljji 


Deces n.m. 


Bli, 


- a bord d'un avion 


OjJlb 5i* ij* Slj) 


Declinaison n.f 


jijjoi 


- magnetique 


^..ijliUAj i_ilj>Jt 


Decollage n.m. 


gtil 


- horizontal 


J*i*\ 


- vertical 


ii-^ £**| 


autorisation de- 


pi-i\i uJ! 


Decrochage n.m. 


J'jil 


Degagement n.m. 


ijy>JI iili£JI iJLAio 


Degivreur n.m. 


^ui, l^O^U Jjjt 


equipements - s 


*Ji. nil <LLjj S/f^-i 


Delestage n.m. 


SJjAS- CjLuLW 


Derive n.f. 


Sbl :yl£~. to 1 -*** 

J^#J SjiUsJl 4a>jjJ 

L^Iaj* ojJ 


Deroutement n.m. 


SjJUs jUn jjj« 


Descente n.f 


JjjjJ» tjjjj 


-de secours 


iju^i Jj>; 


Destination n.f 


t j^yi o^» ixou 


aeroport de 


j^^aii jiiJi 


a -de 


...J! 4*1. cLjJI J 


Detecteur n.m. 


JLAIS 


-de d^faut 


Jl*JI<_iitf 



<$**tt<S>bdtt 



Detournement n.m. 


sLjJl Jjy*> 


-d'un avion 


BjJU. tiki- 


Detresse n.f 


*3UU 


Deviation n.f 


l_»l^>JI 


Diagramme n.m. 


^w rJ 


-de vol 


jjl-Klll (jiLu uj 


Directeur de vol 


JjUJJI *+y> 


Direction n.f 


***y 


-a vue 


j_j]juw 4jj»- <p 


-aux instruments 


cjIjjSU *jj*y 


Dirigeable n.m. 


^.Uu. 


Dispositif n.m. 


;w* 


- s de commande 


f^aJioj^.! 


- s de securite 


L,!>LJl 3^j.i 


- s de simulation 


StfUJl 5>*i 


-s hypersustentateurs 


O^s-Sl oyj 3j+a-i 


Distance n.f 


liLu 


- franchissable 


l**l»S 6^< *il— 11 


Document n.m. 


iiuj 


- s de bord 


SjJLlaJl iJjIjj 


- s d'entretien 


ijlx^Jl JjIjj 


- s de transport 


jaai jiiij 


Domaine n.m 


di. 


-public aeronautique 


o-tjUo o^Liv ill* 


Dommage n.m 


JJ-* 


- aux bagages 


i«i* aL j_yj 


- aux marchandises 


^UJb j^ 



- aux voyageurs 


6*>UHij^ 


Droit n.m. 


rj iCiy9 tj*. 


- aeYien 


<Syr tijM 


- d'escale 


JSjSli j> 


- de survol 


*l»aJl j* 


- spatial 


•LUJI oy$ 


E 


Ecran radar 


jUIj *A\A 


Embarquement n.m. 


V^j 


salle, d'- 


vjJj WJ 


Empennage n.m. 


*u« 


Engin n.m. 


^r 


- orbital 


<ij\±4 yT 


Enregistrement n.m. 


JwwJ 


-s de bord 




Entretien n.m. 


<;l^ 


- d'aeVonef 


jjSUVJi fc|^ 


documents d'- 


Ul^aJl jiUj 


manuel d'- 


Ul+Jl ,jSU5 


Environnement n.m. 


^ 


Envoi n.m. 


&*\ 


Epave n.f 


r Lk> 


- d'un avion 


JjiU» r lk* 


Eph£m£ride n.f 


***>! 


- s aeYonautiques 


4^1 <*.5Ul ct,^ 


Epreuve n.f 


jl^l 


- de maniabilitS 


VijkJi j ji£*.i 


- en ligne 


o^l Jajk&JI jLii.| 



<$4>*tt4>U<4ft 



Equateur n.m 


♦Ijj-li Ja> 


Equipage n.m. 


filfc 


Equipement n.m. 


j**^ 


- s anti-givrures 


« ii.«lJ SjLm CjIjj^>C» 


- s degivreurs 


gLeU 'iljjt ^Ija^jjJ 


- s de secours 


iSU^I olji*-^ 


- s de securit6 


4jXJI ULlljj^JJO 


Erreur n.f 


U£ 


-s instrumentales 


oljjSl ot- \>&> J»5U( 


Escale n.f. 


!^3jj 


- technique 


^ ujiy 


Espace n.m 


JL*j ttLaS 


Aerien 


^Jk- 


Espacement n.m 


iLoli iiL-* 


Expressions 
conventionnelles 


cjljUtf 4 L»iUjl oljLtf 


F 


Faute n.f 


Iki. 


- inexcusable 




- intentionnelle 


^Juxfi lk» 


Freins n.m pi. 


^ ij.lj» 


- aerodynamiques 




Frequence n.f 


jj j j 


-s radio 


jjjlj Otjjjj 


-s fixes 


iutf cjIjjjj 


-s principales 


L^jSj oIjjji 


-s secondaires 


Ojjlj CjljJjJ 



Fret n.m 




-aerien 


<&yf i>*^ »>*' 


Fretement n.m 


jIajuLiI LjASfU 


Freter v.tr. 


yf.\X,\ ij>.\ 


Freteur n .m. 


J*> 


Frontiere n.f.. 


JJ.W 


G 


Garde n.f 


i-lj» 


Gelee n.f 


JiW 


Giravion n.m 


ij>Jj*c SjlUa 


Girodyne n.m 


OJ}*£ Djilk 


Givre n.m 


Cf- 


-opaque 


(_JLu£ ,*jtj 


-transparent 


cJU-i AjA^a 


Goniometre n.m 


UjjJI ^U. 


Gouvernail n.m 


jjLiali- 


Gouvernes n.g pi. 


SjilkJI 3jLj 5>*i 


Gros porteur (liner ou 
Jumbo jet) 




Guidage n.m 


jLijj i<u»j3 


Gyrocompas n.m. 


i^tjA. iL=^ 


Gyrometre n.m. 




Gyropilote n.m. 




Gyroscope n.m. 


jlj*. 


H 




Hangar n.m. 


oijiikii >J\j> 


Hauteur n.f 


** 



*«4>*tt6Ui4B 



-minimale de sScurite 


o^uu ^jjf y* 


Helice n.f 


i* iJt 


Helicoptere n.ra. 




Heligare n.f 


LjjmJI ^IjlltJl ik>* 


Heliport n.nt. 


Oj^mJI oljiliJt jllu 


Heliportage n.m. 


XtlyZ SjSUu Jij 


Heliporte adj. 


■L>J}*£ BjSlio Jjijj 


Horizon artificiel 


^Ukx.1 jii 


Hotcsse n.f 


^ 


-de l'air 


SjjUaJl 4ai„A» 


Hydravion n.m. (ou 
hydroaeroplane) 


ijiU OjJUs 


Hygrometre n.m. 


0^>JI iykjJI ^Ui* 


Hypersustentateur n.m. et 
adj. 


i*J^H,iyu 


Hypersustentation n-f. 


^hi*Si Ly; 


Hypotheque n.f 


U*J 


- aerienne 


CL-ljlliJI C>*J 


- sur aeronef 


SjillJl 6*j 


I 


I.A.T.A. (International Air 
Transport 

Association = Association 
Internationale du transport 
aerien) 




Immatriculation n.f. 


Jajk_J 


certificat d'- 


Ja^_J Ojlf^ 


registre d'- 


j.»..j1Ii j^jj 


Incident n.m. 


t^J* ^J 1 * 'L^J 1 * 


Indemnite n.f. 


QA>yZ 


Insaisissabilite n.f 


j>*>i\ iJjlS .JLS 


- d'aeronef 


SjjLUl ^>o ijLli .j« 



Instructeur n.m. 




Instruction n.f 


-o* 


Instrument n.m. 


*J7 t 5bi 


- s de bord 


6* ^ »->>>3* ^'jji 


Interception n.f 


Sjjlfa feyo (_>*IjjlcI 


Intercepteur n.m. 


<L«jJuu SjJUs 


Itineraire n.m. 


*i*j oW ' J* - •!** 


J 


Jaugeur n.m. 


> 


- de combustibles 


ijul5jjj%jj| jLc 


Jet n.m. 


v isyi jiU ism SjJii 


Jumbo - 


iii^i iJU; 5j5U> 


Jet n.m. 


'^! '^j 


L 


Laisser passer n.m 


jjj* j>>* 


Latitude 


o-yJI-L*. 


Lettre de transport aerien 
(LTA) 




Liberie n.f 


<o- 


- de l'air 


.I^Sl 4^> 


- de passage 


JJJ 11 V" 


- de transport 


Jull L^ 


Licence n.f 


i-h, "jl*| 


- de pilote de ligne 




Ligne n.f 


1» 


- s aenennes 


^Jyk* 


- s regulieres 


luku. Is Ux» 


epreuve de - 


L^AJI .t^kiJI jLO*l 



,$4»*tt&Ui4ft 



pilotage en - 


o^>Jl ij^kiJl j SjLi5 


pilote de - 


4^lJyk3Jl ah 


Limitation n.f 


^ 


- de nuisance 


jl^l -^ 


- de reparation 


^(juyCjl jl>x>3 


Livre de bord 


SjJUJI j^J 


Location n.f 


jsW-t n>ljSI 


- d'aeronef 


Ojilt »lj*j 


Loi n.f 


Otpl* 


- du pavilion 


(JLJI y^lS 


Longitude n .f 


J^l-k* 


Loxodromie n.f 


ii_ > *Ju I»M« 


M 


Machmetre n.m. 


BjJUsJl icj- yl#u 


Manche a balai 


(SjSlkll j) SjUII U* 


Maniabilite n.f 


!**!> 


Manoeuvre n.f 


S^U r SJ L5 


Manometre n.m. 


J**iJl ^U* 


Manuel n.m. 


^US 


- d'entretien 


oLuaJI ^U^ 


- d'exploitation 


JiUl-Tfl Ji\X 


Marchandise n.f. 


uU 


- dangereuse 


jjjki- ifiLoJ 


Meridien n.m. 


JjDIlu. 


Meteorologie n.f 


hyr jLo j' 


Montee n.f 


j^» 


Montgolfiere n.f 


jUuU 


N 


Naissance n.f. 


j^U iB-rfj 


- a bord d'un avion 


SjSlt o=U ^ SjIj 



Nationality n.f 


**-* 


- de l'aeronef 


SjlUxll <i~>^.*- 


Navette n.f 


J^ 


- spatiale 


tUiJI tl£, 


Navigability n.f 


l»WJij>5U 


certificat de - 


i*!JUU l i *yu s }\ SjUi 


Navigant adj. et n. 


C* 


personnel - 




Navigation n.f. 


i*!5U 


- aerienne 


1>y>. i»}U 


- de plaisance 


UjtfloOU 


- de secours 


ttU - ))! o-^U 


- estimee 


OjjjI! o>%> 


- en gyrolibre 


^*JI oljj^W U^U 


-par inertie 


Ljj-ai o*>U 


-par satellite 


J3UI ik-l# o*5U 


-polaire 


iajJaS 0>5U 


-transoceanique 


oU^.H j*c o.5U 


-accident de- 


L>-!5U S3jL». 


-compagnie de - 


O-^U 4*>1 


-permis de - 


I*!jU i-oi-j 


Nuisance n.f 


jlj^l 


-phonique 


</>" jW 





Orage n.m 


*i_eU 


- frontal 


5^Si-U 


- orographique 


iJU*. 4JL0U 


- thermique 


ijjljj. iirfU 



^iWt4>b*4tt 



Orbite n.f 


jU 


Organisation Internationale 
de I'Aviation Civile 


iljiUJ IJjjJl iJ-Jil 


Orthodromic n.f 


itjjJS-u L>!>U 


P 


Palonnier n.m. 




Panne n.f. 


v_i* 


- simulee 


iSjyo i_Ja* 


Parachutage n.m. 


3ik« Ji^i 


Parachute n.m. 


ilk. 


Parachuterv.tr. 


tUb+i &y\ 


Parachutisme n.m. 


Slhi; Ja^fll y5 


Parachutiste n.m. 


J^ 


Parallele n.m. 


^J^ 


Parcours n.m. 


jU 


- international 


^IjjjU 


Passage n.m. 


Jtft>* 


droit de - 


j^y 3^- 


droit de - 


jj^'r-o 


liberte de - 


jj^'*o» 


Passager n.m. 


v^j -jr'^lj 


liste des - s 


v lS^l i^i5 


transport des - s 


v tfjJl JSi 


Passerelle n.f 


5jL* cji-L* 


- telescopique 


<JL».|ju* SjL* 


Pavilion n.m. 


& 


loi du - 


fcUll qjili 


Personnel n.m. 


0^ .£«-«-. 



- navigant 




Photographie n.f 


jty* 


- aenenne 


o* jiy*» i-iSyf jiyt 


Pilotage n.m. 


SjJUJl SjLS 


- automatique 


<j\l*\# 


- en ligne 


<jy? J»jl»»> SjIj* 


Pilote n.m. 


uk, 


-de ligne 


<jj» L^ki. ^Lij 


-professionnel d'avion 


SjSlWl 


Piste n.f 


&■* 


-d'atterrissage, 


Jj^Jl ^ 


-d'envol 


t*?' CJ * 


Plan n.m 


!kk jja.,,^ 


-de vol 




-d'armement 


5jjlk)l Oljuii >u,m 


Planeur n.m 


S^cij^i 3jilt 


Plate-forme n.f. 


i^ji 


Poids n.m 


yjj 


- forfaitaire 


jl>* ujj 


Point n.m. 


StB 


- de non-retour 


^*j^ui iti; 


- equitemps 


cJyJl tjjLj ItJu 


Pollution n.f. 


^ 


- atmospherique 


^Jl ^ 


Pont aerien 


<J^^-* 



*$4>*Jt6Mtt 



Portance n.f. 




Poste n.m 


#>. 


-de pilotage 


SjLjUI jZjt 


Prevention n.f 


*&} 


-de l'abordage 


pljWil o* <&} 


-de I'incendie 


jjj>J! ,> ol5j 


Priorite n.f 


i*U 


de passage 


^, i&Js 


Propulseur n.m. 


&' 


R 


Radar n.m. 


Mj 


- de bord 


SjJUJI jblj 


- meteorologique 


ijyp}\ xvjH jblj 


- primaire 


^J' j'->'j 


- secondaire 


&y\$ jljlj 


Radioaltimetre n.m. 


^ItfpU ^^ ^Luu 


Radio n.f 




-atterrissage (ou 
radioguidee a I'atterrissage 


tj^JJ jSL- Tl <*>; 


-de bord (ou 
radionavigant) 


SjSUJI 6^ ^ 


Radioalignement n.m. 


JU- -51 Jtijl 


Radioaltimetre n.m. (ou 
radiosonde) 


glapU l5 fl- 1 ^l*u 


Radiobalisage n.m. 


J)~ "i jUj 


Radiobalise n.f 


IuSJL, -j jlijl <u** 


Radiocommunication n.f. 


j£U ^ JLx;! 



Radiocompas n.m. 


4,.»<LL, 11 ILey 


Radiogoniometre n.m. 


^LMJ*- 


Radiogoniometrie n.f. 


i fL*'****y 


Radioguidage n.m. 




Radionavigant (ou radio de 
bord) 


^SUsUl JLxtfl £>U 


Radionavigation n.f 


*AL.Ui*^U 


Radiophare n.m. 




Radiosondage n.m. 


./L-^j*- 


Radiosonde n.f 


^jl*-. 


Radiotelephonie n.f 


^■a ^u just 


Redevance n.f 


Ojw3 i a— fj L SjUJl 


-aeronautique 


u'j^ 1 -^O^ 


-d'approche 


^IjSi^ll ^i. 


-d'atterrissage 


■bjjLfJl ji Jjjill S^J 


-de balisage 


jLij^l <jjj~o 


-de passagers 


W_,lSjJI i^-i 


-de passerelle 
telescopique 


iii-ljill 3jU«Jl ijj^i 


-de stationnement 


^JjBjJl ix>_j-o 


-de sfirete aeroportuaire 


jikii ,>i *~xj*° 


-de survol 


J*i>^l *«j-« 


-extra-aeronautique 


ijiLel ^Ijjt. iuf* 


-forfaitaire 


4_*3l>>- **0-9 


-pour attenuation des 
nuisances phoniques 




Regime n.m 


J^uJI D'jjJ <*>- 


-d'endurance maximale 


tS>** J** 3 **r» 



^vnJl^WH 



-de croisiere rapide 


iJLc luli \e.j* 


-de vol optimal 


jjl>*ll iCj_. J_aii 


Registre n.m 


J^J tj*w 


-d'immatriculation 


j^^jiji jijj 


inscription au- 


J*J! j^ 


Regle n.f 


Sj*lj 


-s de I'air 


^l^lji 


Reglementation n.m 


(jjijj l.lfcu t ».i,ki." 


-de l'aviation 


di>ji r^- 


Relcvcment n.m 


ro 13 


Remorquage n.m 


>*■'>* 


-aerien 


5j Slt>i 


Reparation n.f 


jf-^LoJ ;. ijAjyj 


-civile 


J>±, o*iy£ 


-du dommage 


jj^aJl o^jyJ 


-du prejudice 


jj-cJI t>aJ>«J 


-s d'entretien 


iitwJl ^b-^fll 


Repere n.m 


i,}U tf Xw 


-s de direction 


i^j*-^]| J^ljl_,l ju>\J£ 


-s fondamentaux 


^-l_i jJbw 


point de - 


ji JVjjl^i U*; 


Responsabilite n.f 


4jj>-J 


-du constructeur aerien 


SjiUaJl njLs *Jj^~n 


-penale 


AjjLL*- 4jJj^-« 


- pour dommages aux tiers 


jjaLI ill ."11 


- du transporter aerien 


cSjJfcJl JsUl iJjj^j 


Ressource n.f 


(WJ23 



avion en - 


ajyS ill* j 5jjU» 


Retard n.m. 


^b 


Risque n.m. 


J* 


- s aeriens 


o^*3>U« 


compagnie aerienne a -s 


jLlfc* viilj yljjt "*£ji, 


Route n.f 


*> 


s de temps minimum 


&i J>)l J5i 


s polaires 


LjAS j> 


vraie 


£J*-al\ Jj^I 


Riverain adj. et n.m. 


J3 1 ** 


- de I'aeroport 


jU»JJ jjU, 


s 


Satellite n.m. 


ajIj v^J^ ' Jj'— ' 


- artificiel 


^li-j** 


Sauvetage n.m. 


j&l 


Securite n.f 


oui t( >»i ti,y~, 


- aerienne 


\>y» <*%*. 


- aeroportuaire 


jUJi^i 


Service n.m. 


^ 


- de controle 


<jiljil i^JLu 


- de sauvetage 


j&?i oa« 


- tlxe aeronautique 


ijli tfjA, i*L« 


- mobile aeronautique 


*Jiil* jljjt S ■*.! ni> 


Servitude n.f 


jUJjl 


-aeronautique 


CljJJI ,5U5jl 


Signalisation n.f 


jj^ll cljLSJ 


Signaux n.m. PI. 


oljLlJ 


-de code 


j^jJl oljLJ| 


-lumineux 


iujrf oljUl 



*$4>*ft6Wli 



-visuels 


L>j-oj o»ljLi} 


Simulateur n.m 


31SU. jl** 


Simulation n.f 


5UU« 


Simule adj. 


4jy 


Sonique adj. 


Jy° 


-local 


jSj** Js-* 


Spationaute n.m 


cUiJi jilj 


Spationef n.f 


LuLaJ XSjt 


Stabilite n.f 


JJU 


statique longitudinale 


Jjk 6* 1 - j 1 ^ 1 


Station n.f 


ik^ 


-orbitale 


Ajjlit ika*> 


Subsonique adj. 


^j^JI Cj*3 


Supersonique 


o^-all Jji 


Surface n.f 


l*L« 


-s de degagemenl 


^1 JiJl 


Survol n.m 


3*^ 


-de l'eau 


tUl jji jJjJ 


-des obstacles 


j^r-lyJl jji JjI^J 


-des regions 
inhospitalieres 


iJli- jtli. <j_jj jji>J 


-des agglomerations 




-de la haute mer 


jUJl J\*\ & Aji*3 


-de la mer territoriale 




droit de - 


3*1*3" 3* 


redevance de - 


3*1*3)' vo-o 



T 


Tachymetre n.m. 


yljjjJl <Oj-> J'J* 


Tarifn.m. 


iiijKJ 


Taxe n.f 


"*Mj~0 ty-£j 


Technique n.f 


5*» 


- de vol 


3*1*3)14^ 


Telecommunications n.f. pi. 


l£L.*i c/JLrfl 


- aeronautiques 


hyr 5AL.^ c^Usl 


Teledetection n.f 


JUu y£ oLilSl 


Teleguidage n.m. 


JJU (>* **>JJ 


Temps n.m. 


(jUj t ^jy*jj ' 'SjSj 


- civil 


j** ^y 


- du fuseau 




- legal 


(^j^) </»-j -^r 


- universel coordonne 


.Xa-jj ^ilc CjjSjj 


Terrain n.m. 


L^jl 


-d'aviation 


jUugjo. 


- de degagement 


tS^jJI Jiiil 


Thermodynamique n.f 


Ljljj- Llwtl>J 


Thermodynamique adj. 




Tour n.f 


G* 


- de controle 


W & 


Trafic n.m. 


JJ_.il tfj* IJ*, 


- aerien 


(Jyjjl jj-Jl 4$y» 


Train d'atterrissage 


Jjjill O^** 


Trajectoire n.f 


jL- 



^Wt6U*4tt 



- d'envol 


JiUoIl jL« 


Transmission n.f 


^ 


Transonique adj. 




Transport n.m. 


J« 


- des marchandises 


^iUJl JiJ 


- des passagers 


visyiju 


- aerien 


*i>* J*i 


- combine 


i^j* 


Territoire n .m 


r*»i 


Territorialite n.f 


Wi| 


- del'air 


wis; i>>Ji wJ5| 


Turbopropulseur n.m 


^*tf ,J 


Turboreacteur n.m 


U^* L^b 


Turbulence n.f 


,-jl^LJl 


-dynamique 


d^x. v i>»i 


-en ciel clair 




-thermique 


i^jlj>. kjl^jltjl 


Transporteur n.m 


J5U 


V 


Verification n.f 


^ 


-externe 


(j^-jl* lh=^* 


-interne 


^^li-lj (^aiaj 


-liste des - s (check list) 


L) aj>i)l i»5l3 


Vibration n.f 


^' 


Vidange n.f 


ij>i 


- en vol 


jJUsJi Jy* £\J\ 



Visibility n.f 


<ib 


Vitesse n .f 


4*^ 


- critique 


i^S-j- 


- d'approche 


vljii^i Uj~* 


- d'attente 


jUsJj^ll i*j_, 


- d'atterrissage 


J»^l Xe,^, 


- de croisiere 


iulj **,-. 


- dedecrochage 


Jljil ^ 


- de descente 


iJjjj <&j~i 


- de la derive 


Z?* "^y 


- du vent 


pjllxjr. 


- Mmite 


<Jys& Lcj_ 


- propre 


iplj S*- 


- sol 


^1 


- regression de la - 


4Xj_JI L> aiL>. 


Voilure n.f 




Vol n.m. 


(jljit i<Uj tjjUO 


- acrobatique 


^l^sl-l JjjLhj 


- a haute altitude 


UWI .I^Sl j jiU: 


-a vitesse constante 


4JuU <C w*ij (JjLxj 


- a voile 


^'P oi> 


- a vue 


J^ouk 


-aux instruments 


tSj**SlL 3*1*3 


- d'apprentissage 




- d'entrainement 


Lj^jjJ lA^* 3 



^4y*tt4>l*i4tt 



- d'essai 


,jHJ*J ££*> 


-de descente rectiligne 
uniforme 


(Mii—Jaj** joUj 


- de montee rectiligne 
uniforme 


»-uu.-j iyt^a jjl^" 


- denuit 


J^Wo'j^ 


- de reconnaissance 


^^Ui-I Jil>o 


- dissymetrique 


J;L* j>h 3*1*3 


- en atmosphere givrante 


jkZ-o yr j ,3*1*3 


- en pique 


^LoUl 3*1*3 


- en turbulence 


V I>J>I Jj-Ij 3*1*3 


- fictif 


lSj^ 3*1*3 


- horizontal uniforme 


Jj.".V» l yiil J*1*j 



- orbital 


lijlA* ob* 1 * 


- regulier 


l*l»i« il*j 


- sans escale 


<-**}3 6j J 3*1*3 


- spatial 


^Uio'jJ* 


- actions preliminaires au - 


^ijjkU ojj^jj JU*i 


-assistance des - s 


ollJbuil o-xeLu 


-diagramme de 


3*l*3iJ ^Lu p-,j 


-execution du 


A^WpW! 


-heures de 


OljiLJI oUU 


-plan de 


jiUjJl g.Uj, 


-preparation du 


3*1*31) jIaxjuI 


-vidange en - 


jiUUi jm* £i>! 


-vitesse optimale de 


JiUSlJ icj- J-isi 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



linguistes, des sociologies, des psychologues, des 
historiens, des anthropologues et des s^manticiens. 
Leurs collaborations affineraient la definition, tandis 
que d'autres lexicologues optent pour une approche 
bien particuliere, c'est le cas par exemple de 
1'approche syntaxique et 1'approche lexicale. Ces 
deux approches ont 6t6 adoptees par deux 
dictionnaires, Tun allemand et l'autre anglais dans le 
but d'affiner la definition et afin qu'elle soit 
accessible. Quant a Hausmann (1990), il pnSconise 
que le contexte peut etre une issue de l'impasse dont 
se trouve la definition. Pour argumenter en faveur 
de sa proposition, il part du postulat que le lexique 
est idiomatique et non pas autonome , et selon le 
degre de I'autonomie des mots dans la langue on 
peut user du contexte: 

Signe idiomatique "* le contexte sans definition 

Signe plus ou moins -> contexte plus definition 
autonome 



Note: 

Les exemples sont tires de«?almun2id» <j*ai)1 966. 
Biblioqraphie : 

Austin J.L (1970) Quand dire c'est faire 

Paris, Seuil 

Ben elazmia.N La definition : pratique 

( 1999 ) Lexicograque et semantique Prototypique. 

these de DESA (non publk'e) Faculte 
Mohammed V Agdal . Rabat. 

Colignon. L et Les dictionnaires, initiation a la 
M.GIatigny (1978) lexicographic Paris .CEDIF. 

Debove.J.R(197l) Etude linguistique et semiotique Des 

dietionnairesFrancais contemporains, Paris, 

Mouton. 



Signe autonome ■> definition 

La derniere approche est 1'approche 

prototypique. Cette approche s' inscrit dans le cadre 

de la semantique cognitive qui remet en cause le 

modele des conditions necessaires et suffisantes qui 

a ete jusqu'a present adopte dans les dictionnaires 

occidentaux (cf. Ben elazmia, 1999). 

CONCLUSION: 

Tout au long de cette etude nous avons essaye 
d'esquisser la polysemie de la definition. Celle-ci est 
vue differemment ; nous avons mis 1'accent, plus 
particulierement, sur 1'approche lexicographique. 
Ainsi , avons nous fait une taxinomie des types de 
definition dans le dictionnaire «? almunzid » et les 
types de lacunes qu'il comporte. Nous en concluons 
que la pratique lexicographique a elle seule ne suffit 
pas pour raffiner la definition, ainsi il faut avoir 
recours aux theories linguistiques pour atteindre cet 
objectif . 



(1970) 
Hausmann. J (1990) 

Lehmann.A(1990) 



«Le domaine du dictionnaire » in langages, 

N 1 ' 19, Paris Larousse P.3-34. 

« La definition est-elle utile ? »ln la 

ddfinition (collectif), Paris, Larousse, 

P.225-236. 

« De definition a definition : 



interpretation dans le dictionnaire par le 
jeu des renvois » in la definition (collectif) 
, Paris, Larousse , P.208-224. 

Marcus.S(1970) «Definition logique et definition 

lexicographique)) in langages N° 19, 

ParisXarousscP.87-91. 
Martin.R(1990) «La definition naturelle » in la definition 

(collectif), Paris, Larousse P.86-97. 
Picoche. J (1977) Precis de lexicologie francaise, Paris, 

Nathan 

Rey.A(1977) Le lexique image et modeie:du 

dictionnaire a la lexicologie, Paris, Colin. 

(1990) « Polysemie du terme definition » in la 

definition (collectif),Paris, Larousse, P. 13- 



RIEGUEL.M ( 1 990) «La definition, acte de langage ordinaire de 
la forme a rinterpretation» in la definition 
(collectif) , Paris , Larouse, P. 97-1 1 1. 



DICTIONNAIRE: 

? almunfid i^- 
1966) 



Lewis Maalouf 

Al matbaca ? alkatulikija Bayrout. 



60 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



pour le locuteur natif et pour I'&ranger. Ces 
difficultes proviennent, en premier lieu, du fait que 
les dictionnaires repondent a une necessity pratique 
plutot qu'a une necessite" sientifique. Pour cette 
raison, la definition dans le dictionnaire, souffre de 
beaucoup de lacunes, entre autres : 

i- Elle ne repond pas au sens logique du mot 
definition, parce que le dictionnaire utilise le mot 
qu'il est sur le point de definir dans la definition. 
Cette procedure donne lieu a une circularite 
(Marcus, 1970, P. 87). e.g : ' 

;>ii ay <j u : j*±H\ (Levert) 

> £j ii > : jJaJi ^ (Avoir des 
, poussins) 

ii- Elle est ambigue ce qui donne lieu a une 
certaine confusion entre les entrees (selon Collignon 
et Glatigny, Ibid ., P. 125). e.g: 



Jjijjb-i- (Puberta) 



"«>" Jo^tjjl ;}\j&\ - 

jl«s *jjj :0bji ^ 
sA> 'S3 £& 

..ji-Jtsuj-iJir 

jii*. ^ijj :J*«Jt - 



iii- Elle est ouverte non limitee et cela 
s'explique par les renvois qui creent une chaine 
infmie, et qui rendent le d^codage de la definition 
difficile (voir Lehmann 1990, P.213). 



(Peu de 
cheveux sur 
IJ _LJ tetoupet) 












X ( I'&iorme) 



V'u 



iv- Elle est circulaire : definir le verbe x par 
y et y par x, directement ou indirectement 
(Hausmann , 1990) c'est le cas pour : 
. . .^ } ^ : r _ J Li (I'enorme) 
...^■.^ (Grand) 
Seulement il faut noter que cette circularite a pour 
origine la relation de synonymie entre les mots. 

4- LES PERSPECTIVES: 

En somme, la definition souffre de maintes 
lacunes, ce qui rend la tache du lecteur difficile et 
ne permet pas au lexicographe d'atteindre son 
objectif ; c'est pourquoi nous distinguons deux 
points de vue differents quant a la definition dans le 
dictionnaire. Celui des lexicologues qui affirment 
qu' : «il n'est pas indispensable que celle-ci soit 
impeccable aux points de vue logique, scientifique 
semantique pour qu elle joue le role qu'il attend 
d'elle... » (Picoche , 1977 , P. 134), et celui de ceux 
qui postulent que celle-ci doit etre perfectionnee au 
profit du lecteur et proposent des solutions. Selon 
Rey (1977, P.94) , pour que la lexicographic en 
general emerge, il doit y avoir une contribution des 



AL-LISSAN AI.-ARABI 



II y a differents types de definitions dans un 
dictionnaire de langue: La definition par renvoi , la 
definition par synonymie. Celle-ci, est la plus 
simple, mais elle est aussi la plus dangereuse, parce 
qu'elle cree un cercle vicieux (voir l'exemple de 
(r -Jri) . e.g: 

lugai f ji :ii^\ (L'heure du jugement) 
iUi : Ji^ c :ii^i < La fourm ') 
4P^ :4J £6: ( Le tuer ) 

La definition par rapprochement : c'est la 
definition d'un concept par rapprochement a un 
autre, e.g: 



laquelle appartient l'objet ou l'acte defini. e.g : 



genre I " nr ' ~-^ (Scropion) 
prochain \ ■■■•& : ^^ (Poule) 

I ....j2& : JM (Laurier-rose) 

b- la definition specifique : c'est la definition qui 
pennet de faire la distinction entre les especes par le 
biais des traits specifiques (cf. Debove, 1971 et 
Colignon et Glatigny, 1978), par exemple 
Pautruche et la cigone appartiennent toutes les deux 
a la meme espece, mais l'une ne vole pas et l'autre 
vole. Pour plus d' illustration nous donnons les 
entrees suivantes : 



fi\ y> . 



ft\ ^-i • jI\ ( L ' oncle: Frere du P ere ) 

jty ( .jj^, (Le grand-pere: le pere 
* du pere ... le pere de la 

mere) 



La definition morphosemantique, elle est la plus 
frequente dans les dictionnaires arabes dont les 
entrees sont a base derivationnelle. Elle implique un 
renvoi aux mots de la meme famille, en precisant le 
lien semantique que ces mots entretiennent entre 
eux . e.g 

, (Devenir nouveau 

i Lo ■ - i (Devenir nouveau) 



ljkII c 



(La vipere se 
depouille) 

La definition logic|ue est consideree par les 
lexicologues comme la meilleure. Elle inclut deux 
elements: le genre prochain et la definition 
specifique. 

a- le genre prochain : il indique la categorie a 






Traits Spfcifiques 

(L'autruche : oiseau, 
a pris du chameau la 
queue et de 1'oiseau 
les ailes, le bee et 
les plumes. A 

caracterisque la 
peur, lastupidite...) 



— Traits specifiques 

o- O^A? y*b JHj^ (La cigogne : 

u> oUUDi ^ I oiseau a la queue et 

<£? — : : — V- les pieds longs. Elle 

oLti js"l ,<JU f mange les viperes. 

— Elle est intelligente). 

iAuJlj ^JJlj J*-*#i 



3- LES LACUNES DE LA DEFINITION DANS LE 
DICTIONNAIRE ARABE (LE CAS DE ?ALMUNZID). 

Le lecteur met le dictionnaire dans une position 
superieure, et cela se manifeste par la confiance 
qu'il lui accorde. Or , l'utilisation du dictionnaire est 
parfois difficile pour les jeunes et pour les adultes, 



58 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



droit (Ibid. , P. 14). 

L'approche philosophique est celle qu'on trouve 
chez Aristote et par ia suite chez les philosophes 
medievaux et les philosophes de port royal. Le point 
central qui a fait couler beaucoup d'encre est cette 
dichotomie definition de mots et definition de 
choses, ou bien definition de noms, definition de 
choses. Pour Pascal, par exemple, la vraie 
definition est la definition du nom, parce qu'elle est 
libre, autrement dit arbitrage. Elle consiste a 
imposer libremeut un nom aux choses connues que 
Ton designe par des termes. Ce choix s'explique par 
le fait que cette definition est du genre logico- 
mathematique. Dans la conception defmitoire de 
Pascal, les concepts fondamentaux comme le temps, 
l'espace, l'etre etc. , sont indefinissables parce que 
ces concepts sont des concepts de base deja connus; 
Si on les definit on tombe dans la repetition (Ibid. , 
P. 16). 

En passant d'un discours metaphysique a un 
discours purement social, la definition prend une 
allure differente. C'est ce que Martin (1990, P.86) 
appelle «Ia definition naturelle», c'est a dire la 
definition des mots ordinaires utilises dans le 
langage quotidien. Celle-ci s'oppose a une definition 
qui est celle des mots conventionnels, comme la 
definition logique, mathematique et la definition 
metalinguistique qu'on trouve dans le dictionnaire. 
La definition naturelle n'est pas seulement la 
definition des objets naturels, mais elle est formulae 
par les locuteurs eux-memes (Ibidem) 

Rieguel (1990, P.97) considere la definition 
naturelle comme etant un acte de langage qui doit 
respecter tout un processus langagier pour reussir 



(cf. aux conditions de la reussite d'un enonce 
performatif chez Austin, 1970): X demande a Y la 
definition d'un mot ou d'une expression dont il 
ignore le sens, en estimant que son interlocuteur 
possede la competence que lui n'a pas. La presence 
d'un repondeur competent est indispensable pour 
garantir la reussite pragmatique de l'acte 
defmitoire. 

Cette variete d'approches est indue dans 
l'approche lexicographique et appliquee au 
dictionnaire. Or, il arrive que le test d'application de 
ces approches connaisse un echec, ce qui rend la 
definition lexicographique incomplete et 
insuffisante. 

2- La definition dans le dictionnaire 

Selon Debove (1971, P. 180) la definition dans 
le dictionnaire est « I'enonce qui est cense explicab- 
le contenu du mot et qui represente le second 
membre d'une predication definitionnelle totale dont 
le sujet est l'entree». La definition constitue le 
couronnement et la fin du travail du lexicographe. 
Elle n'est pas introduite pat la copule «est», celle-ci 
preexiste implicitement pour fonder l'identite de la 
categorie grammatical (Ibid., P. 187.). 

Si on concoit la definition comme etant la 
reponse a la question: qu'est ce qu'un x ? a laquelle 
on repond par : un x est ... , la definition serait alors 
bel et bien une activite naturelle et non 
metalinguistique, du moment qu'elle repond a un 
besoin social primordial, celui de se faire 
comprendre. Le dictionnaire, en adoptant ce procede 
ne s'eioigne pas de la definition naturelle (Ibid. , 
P. 195). 



Les lacunes de la "definition" dans le dictionnaire 
arabe: (la cas de ?almunzid ^^) 



INTRODUCTION: 

La « definition » est une notion archa'ique qui 
date d'Aristote. Elle a donne lieu a des debats 
philosophiques et linguistiques qui durent jusqu'a 
nos jours. Or, s'il est vrai que la plupart des 
problematiques soulevees jadis, a propos de la 
definition, sont delaissees , il est tout aussi vrai que 
certaines d'entre elles resurgissent sous d'autres 
formes. 

La definition est traditionnellement liee a l'objet 
dictionnaire, neanmoins, il y a plusieurs fa9ons 
d'aborder la definition lexicographique. Elle est la 
piece maitresse du dictionnaire, bien qu'il soit 
constitu<5 d'autres informations, celles-ci ne sont 
donnees que pour l'illustrer, l'approfondir et combler 
ses lacunes. 

Dans cette etude nous nous proposons de mettre 
1'accent sur les points suivants : 

• La definition : plurality d'approches. 

• La definition dans le dictionnaire. 

• Les lacunes de la definition dans le 
dictionnaire arabe 

• Les perspectives 

1- LA DEFINITION : PLURALITE 



Nadia BEN ELAZMIA n 
D'APPROCHES 

Etymologiquement, le terme « definition » 
provient du mot latin «d6finitio». Le terme en 
francais est done un substantif verbal de definir, 
compose du radical «finir». Celui-ci renvoie au 
sens de la finitude et au sens du bornage , autrement 
dit, mettre terme a quelque chose ( Rey 1977, P.98). 
Pour les logiciens de Port Royal, la definition «est 
un remede a la confusion qui nait dans nos pensees 
et dans nos discours de la confusion des mots» 
(Ibid, P.99). 

La definition est un terme polysemique, et sa 
polysemie provient du fait que cette activite 
langagiere a suscite, depuis Aristote, la curiosity 
des philosophes, des semanticiens, des 
pragmaticiens et des lexicographes. Rey (1990, 
P. 13) repartit cette pluralite d'approches en trois 
types : le premier type releve d'un ordre 
philosophique, le second d'un ordre langagier, et le 
troisieme est, a quelques differences, comme le 
premier type d'approche. On trouve ce dernier type 
frequemment dans le discours theorique, 
scientifique et terminologique, notamment celui du 



" Faculty Mohammed V Rabat. 



56 AL.LISSAN AL-ARAB1 



people, especially through the mass media, either 
read, heard, or watched. 

On the other hand, it is unfair to turn a 
blind eye to the fact that there are other aspects and 
examples of culture which are still strange, or 
rather, estranged to and by translators and 
readerships. As the case may be, I would argue 
that, due to international communications-and I 
single out television, satellite television in 
particular, which has reached almost everywhere in 
the globe- cultural barriers have in the most been 
eliminated, broken down, tamed in some way or 
another, or at least dismantled of utter strangeness. 

Cricket, baseball, or rugby, for instance, 
are no longer unfamiliar to Arab people. The same 
is true for clothes, foods, social habits and 
gestures, pop. music, social and national occasions, 
music, political jargon, jokes, etc. 

Needless to say, however, that 
English/western cultural barriers are overcome 
much quicker than Arabic-cultural barriers, 
because of the superiority and invasion of western 



civilization and culture of the rest of the world, 
whether we like it or not. 

Conclusion 

In the translation of culture - and this 
paper is not about the translation of culture - 
there can be cross - cultural links even between 
two-, widely different cultures such as English 
and Arabic. Not only-equivalence or close 
correspondence is available and possible 
between English and Arabic cultural terms, 
but also absolute correspondence is recurrent. 

Although the translation of culture is 
still a problem for the translator, strong ties 
among global cultures, no matter how different 
they may be, are no longer a fiction, but a fact, 
as this paper has hopefully demonstrated in 
connection to some cultural aspects of Arabic 
and English. And further research in this 
direction can perhaps decipher more depths of 
international cross-cultural links in translation. 



Bibliography 

1. Carter, R.A. (1987) Vocabulary: Applied Linguistic 
Perspectives,AHen and Unwin (London). 

2. Benson, M, Benson, (1986), The BBI combinatory 
Dictionnary of English : A Guide to word 
combinations, John Benjamins, (Amsterdam 
/philadelphie). 

3. Collins (1986) Collins English 
Dictionary(2nd ed.), Collins (London, Glasgow). 

4. Ghazala, H. (1992) Al-Jame' fi tarjama (Arabic 
tr. Newmark,P.(1988), A Textbook of 
translation. Prentice hall (London, NewYorK), Part- 
1), Elga (Malta-Valetta) 

5. Ghazala, H. (1993) The translation of collacations 
"(English-Arabic) Turjuman, vol, 2.1 P.P, -1 -33 

6. Ghazala, H. (1993) The translation of 
collacations "(English-Arabic) Turjuman, vol, 
2.N°1 P.P, -7-44 



7. Ghazala, H. (1995) Translation as problem 
and solutions : A coursebook, Elga (Malta) 

8. Balabakki,M. (1991) Al-Mawrid:English- 
Arabic 25th edn), Dar Al-Ilm 
Lilmalayeen(Beirut) 

9. Balabakki,R.(1988) Al-Mawrid: Arabic- 
English dictionary, Dar Al-Ilm Lilmalayeen 
(Beirut) 

10. Longman (1979) Longman Dictionary of 
English Idioms, Longman (London) 

11. Almunjid (1987) Almunjid fi l-lugha 
wal-a'laam : Arabic Dictionaiy (29 th edn), 
Dar AI Mashriq(Beirut) 

12. Newmark,P. (1988) A Textbook of 
Translation, Prentice Hall (London and 
NewYork). 

13. Team of Teachers (1985) A Dictionary 
of English Idioms: English- Arabic, 
Lebanon Library(Beirut). 



AL.LISSAN AI.-ARABI 



9. as pretty as a picture, (ahla- mina s-sura). 

10. as blind as a bat. (a'ma mina(ka)l-khuffash). 

Collocations: Proverbs: absolute 

correspondence 

Being fixed expressions, proverbs can be 
labelled under collocations as well. They are 
heavily imbued with culture. The two widely 
different cultures, English and Arabic, do have 
some absolutely correspondent proverbs: 

1. like father like son. (man shabaha abahu 
ma zalam/al-waladu sirru abeehi /al- 
waladu nuskhaton min abeehi). 

2. do not put off your duty till tomorrow, (la 
tu'ajjel amala 1-yawmi ila 1-ghad). 

3. all that glitters isn't gold, (ma kullu ma 
yalma'u thahaban). 

4. need is the mother of invention, (al-hajatu 
ummu 1-ikhtira'i). 

5. money is the root of all evils, (al-malu 
masdaru/aslu sh-shuroori kulliha). 

6. love is blind, (al-hubbu a'ma). 

7. as you sow so will you reap, (kama tazra'u 
tahsudu). 

8. man is known by the company he keeps, 
(yu'rafu L-mar'u bisuhbatihi/ qol lee man 
tu'ashiru aqoolu laka man ant). 

9. laugh and the world laughs with you, weep 
and you weep alone, (idhak yadhak laka L- 
alam, ibki tabki liwahdika). 

10. (I hear wheeling without milling.(asma'u 
ja'ja'atan wala(ara)taheenan). 

11. too many cooks spoil the broth, (kathratu 
t-tabbakheena tufsidu (tahruqu t-tabkhati/t- 
tahyi). 

12. every why has wherefore, (likulli su'alen 
jawab(uhu)). 

Collocations:Proverbs:close correspondence 

Other proverbs in the two languages have 
some elements in common, which are illustrated in 
the following examples: 
1 out of sight out of mind, (ba'eedon ani I-aym 

ba'eedon ani L-kalb): SIGHT = AYN; 

MIND(AQ 



^=KALB . 

carrying coal to Newcastle, (kahamili t-tamri 
ila 1-basra): PARRYINGF" YAHMILU ; 
rv^Ai^FAHM ) -=TAMR: NEWCASTL E^ 
-BASRAiCTTY). 



3. forbidden fruit is sweet, (kullu mamnoo'en 
marghoob):FORBIDDEN = MAMNOO'; 
FRUIT (DROPPED); SWEET (HULWON) 
= MARGHOOB (DESIRED) 

4. blood is thicker than water, (ad-damu la 
yaseeru ma'anV BLOOD=DAMON . 
THICKER THAN(ASLMAKU MIN)=LA 
YASSERU(DOES NOT BECOME); 
WATER=MA'ON 

5. to hit three birds with one stone, 
(yadribu'usfoorayni bihajar): HIT = 
YADRIBU; THREE BIRDS (3.) = 
'USFODRAYN( 2)- WITH ONE STONE = 
BIHAJAR . 

6. a bird in hand is worth two in the bush, 
('usfooron fi L-yadi khayron min asharaten 
ala sh-shajara):BIRD= 'USFOOR ; 
HAND=YAD; TWO(2)- ASHARA 
fl(V).BUSH=SHAJARA . 

7. two minds are better than one. (ra'yani 
khayron min ra'yen wahed): 
M1ND(AQLV=RA'YQN . 

8. to make a dome out of a molehill, (ya'malu 
mina 1-habbati qubba): OOME^OUBBA; 
MQI.EH1LL(TALLAT JJ L KHILD)- 
HARBA fONE GRAINV 

9. a friend in need is a friend indeed.(as-sadeequ 

waqta d-deeqi): A FRIEND INDEED^AS- 
SADF.F.O: IN NEED - WAOTA D - DEEP 
(INDEED is dropped). 
lO.better to be safe than sorry, (as-salamatu wala 
n-nadama):BETTER (MTNA L-AFDALI) 
SAFE= SALEM : SORRY = NADEM . 



Absolute and close correspondence of 
cultural terms in English and Arabic can in fact 
be sought for in other cultural aspects: 
institutional, social, religious, political, 
geographical and international. Yet, and for the 
purposes of this paper Whose concentration has 
been on metaphors and collocations in specific, 
suffice it to say that these aspects of culture are 
mostly caiques imported into Arabic(especially 
political, institutional, international and some 
social terms), or cultural-specific equivalents 
(including geographical and religious terms). 
Many examples are come across almost daily by 



54 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



15. hurly-burly/hodgepodge/higgledy piggledy. 
(al-harju wal-marju): a great deal of 
noise(jalaba/sakhab): 

16. filthy richness, (ghina fahesh):unnatural 
richness (ghina ghayru tabee'iyy): 
FILTHY:FAHESH . 

1 7. humpty dumpty. (qaseeru l-qamati): short and 
fat(qaseeron wabadeen). 

18. to teach someone a lesson, (yulaqqinuhu 
darsan): rebuke (yuqarri'u /yuwabbikh): 
TEACH:YULAOOINU: LESSON:DARSAN . 

19. by sheer co-incidence, (bimahdi sudfa): 
SHEER:MAHD . 

20. food and drink, (at-ta'amu wash-sharabu): 
FOOD : TA'AM, DRINK 'SHARAB . 

21. to grind one's teeth.' (yasukku asnanahu): 
express anger(yu'abbiru 'an gadabihi): 
GRIND:YASUKKU . 

22. to exert an effort, (yabthulu juhdan): 
EXERT:YABTHULU; EFFORT:JUHD . 

23. to wash one's handsof.(yaghsili) yadayhi 
min):give up hope(yafqidu 1-amal): 
WASH.-YAGHS1LU: HANDS:YADAN . 

24. raging storm, (asifaton hawj-a'u): strong wind 
(reehon qav„iyyaton):RAGING: HAWJA'U: 
STQRM:'AS1FA . 

25. in at one ear and out at the other.(yadkhulu 
min othon wayakhruju mins L-ukhra): 
understand nothing( la yafqah shay'an): 
IN/OUT: YADKHULU/ YAKHRUJU; 
EAR:OTHON: THE OTHER:AL-UKHRA . 

Collocations:one-part correspondence 

Many other collocations in the two 
languages are semi-correspondent in that one part 
of the collocation is perfectly identical with its 
peer in the other language: 

1. Bread and butter, (al-khubzu wal- 
milhu):,basics of life(asasiyyatu 1- 
hayati):BREAD=KHUBZ; 
BUTTER(ZUBDA)=MILH. 

2. presence of mind. (hudooru 1- 
badeehati):wittiness(sur'atu 1 -badeehati): 
PRESENCE=HUDOOR; 
MIND(THIHN/AQL)= BADEEHA. 

3. prime of life, (rabee'u L-umuri): youth(ash- 
shabab):PRIMF-(MATLA'/SADR)= 
RABEE(SPRING); LIFE=UMUR. 

4. live and learn. ('eesh wshoof/'ishna 
wshufna):an expression of surprise (ta'beeron 



ani L-istigrabi) : LIVE = EESHASHNA; 

LEARN(TA'ALLAM-/ALLAMNA)= 

SHUFNA(SEE). 

5. to go to earth, (tabla'uhu L-ard): disappear/ 
no trace of him (yakhtafee / la athara lahu): 
GO (YATHHAB) =TABLA'UHU)'; 
EARTH=ARD. 

6. to sign on the dotted line, (yuwaqqi'u ala 
bayad):absolute confidence (thiqa mutlaqa): 
SIGN=YUWAQQI'U; ON THE DOTTED 
LINE(ALA S-SATRI L-MUNAQQAT) 
=BAYAD. 

7. to take the lead, (ya'khuthu zimama 1- 
mubadara):to be in the front(yakunu fi 1- 
muqaddima): TAKE =YA'KHUTHU; THE 
LEAD(AL-QIYADA) = ZIMAMU 1 
MUBADARA. 

8. brain drain (hijratu I-admigha):immigration 
of the intelligentsia (hij ratu n-nukhba): 
BRAIN^DIMAGH; 
DRAIN(ISTINZAF/RASHU)= HIJRA. 

9. poet laureate, (ameeru sh-shu'ara'i): 
POET-SHA'ER; 

LAUREATE(MUKALLALON BIL- 

GHARI) = AMEEF (PRINCE). 

10. fast/sound sleep, (subaton ameeq):heavy 
sleep (nawmon thaqeel) FAST 
(SAREE'ON) /SOUND (MATEEN).= 
AMEEQ; SLEEP = SUBAT. 

Collocations: Similes:absolute correspondence 

As...as-similes are classified here as 
collocations of a special kind, as they are fixed 
expressions. These are also cultural and some 
of them are identical in both languages: 

1 . as strong as a horse/a lion.(aqwa mina L- 
hisan/1-asad). 

2. as patient as a donkey, (asbaru mina I- 
himar). 

3. as obstinate as a mule, (a 'nadu mina I - 
baghl) 

4. as cunning as a fox.(amkaru mina th- 
tha'lab). 

5. as slow as a tortoise, (abta'u mina s- 
sulehfat). 

6. as innocent as a child, (baree'on bara'eta 
I-atfal). 

7. as fast as an arrow, (asra'u mina s-sahm). 

8. as sweet as sugar/honey, (ahla- mina s- 
sukkar/L-asal). 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



These metaphors are absolutely 
correspondent both literally and figuratively, and 
are called bj' Newmark, 'adapted 
metaphors'(muqtabasa)'(see also Ghazala,1992): 

1. the ball is in their court, (af-kuratu fee 
malabihem): 

2. warm reception.(istiqbalon harron). 

3 . warm welcome, (tarheebon harron). 

4. lukewarm reception, (istiqbalon fatiron). 

5. lukewarm welcome, (tarheebon fatiron). 

6. to sow division, (yazra'u sh-shiqaqa). 

7. massive sale, (tanzeelon dakhmon). 

8. a massacre of goals, (majzaratu ahdafen). 

9. no smoke without fire. (la naron min 
dooni dukhanen). 

10. brainwashing, (ghaslu dimaghen). 

Other caiques 

The most remarkable examples are car 
industry, technological and computer sciences in 
particular, which are a western culture borrowed 
into Arabic daily and unabashedly: 

1. databank (bank ma'lumat) 

2. computer keyboard, (lawhatu mafatech 1- 
kompyutar) 

3. computer virus, (vayroosu 1-kompyutar). 

4. railway station, (mahattatu qitaraten). 

5. car wash, (ghaseelu Sayyarat). 

6. roundabout/ringroad.(dawwar/tareeq halaqiy). 

7. car park, (mawqef sayyarat). 

8. airport, (matar/meen-a'jawwiy). 

9. telephone directory, (daleelu 1-hatef) 

10. spare parts, (qita' ghiyar). 
etc. 

Here there is an endless effort by Arab and 
Arabic translators, terminologists, scientists and 
specialists to find the correspondent terms in 
Arabic. These are sought for via Arabisation, and 
naturalisation in particular. Yet, transference is 
still dominant in this specific field of culture. 

Collocations: absolute correspondence 

The major part of the cultural link between 
English and Arabic its the identification of many of 
their collocations with one another. By collocation 
I mean the two or more words which keep 
permanent-or usually permanent- company, 
including idioms, fixed and special expressions of 
all types, and proverbs (though proverbs are 



assigned a separate paragraph later in this paper 
for their special cultural significance) (see 
Carter, 1987:ch.3; Ghazala (in Arabic), 1993 for 
further details about collocations). 

The following examples illustrate an 
absolute identification among cultural 
collocations in both languages, lexically as well 
as semantically: 

1. at a stone's throw, (ala marma hajar):near 
fqareehV STONE : HAJAR: THROW; : 
MARMA . 

2. blind confidence.(thiqa amya): absolute 
trust(thiqa mutlaqa): BLIND:AMYA' 

3. to toss down the bitterness of defeat, 
(yatajarra'u mararata 1-hazeema): to accept it 
unwillingly (yaqbaluha ala madad): TOSS 
DOWN: YATAJARRA'U: BITTERNESS : 
MARARATA . 

4. honourable defeat, (hazeema musharrifa): 
marginal defeat (hazeeme bifariqen da'eelen 
jiddan): HONOURABLE:MUSHARRIFA . 

5. to save one's skin, (yanjoo bijildihi): to 
escape death (yanjoo mina I-mawt): 
SKIN:J1LD . 

6. bed-ridden, (tareehu 1-firashi): seriously ill 
(shadeedu 1-marad) : BED: FIRASH; 
RIDDEN :TAREEH . 

7. association of ideas. (tada'ee h 
afkarVASSOCIATION:TADA'EE , 

8. the throes of death, (sak(a) ratu 1-mawt): 
THROHS:SAK(A-)RATU . 

9. wonderments and bewilderments, (aja'eb 
a ghara'ebV WONDERMENTS : AJA'EB 
BEWILDERMENTS : GHARA'EB . 

10. sweet-tongued. (hulwu/tariyyu I-lisani):good 
talker(mutahaddithon maher): SWEET 
HI II Wt I/TARIYYU: TONGUE : LISAN . 

11. bare-footed. (hafiya 1-qadamayni) 
RARF. HAFIYA: FOOT:OADAM . 

12. bare-headed, (hasira r-ra'si) : BARE 
HASIRA; HEAD:RAAS . 

13. straying sheep, (ghanamon qasiya):lost 
sheep(ghanamon ta'iha :STRAYINC: 
OASIYA . 

14. winking and blinking (al-ghamzu wal- 
lamzu): backbiting (al- gheebatu wan- 
nameema): WTNKTNG:GHAMZ; 
RT.TNKING:LAMZ . 



52 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



Metaphors: absolute correspondence 

A considerable part of metaphors, 
especially the so-called dead, cliche and stock 
metaphors (see Newmark,1988:ch.l0) is cultural 
by origin and/or popularity of use. The following 
examples exhibit a perfect identification between 
each couple of metaphors in English and Arabic. 
Each example can be read both ways, and is 
followed by its sense, which is the same, in both 
languages, and at the end comes the image of the 
metaphor in capitals: 

1. I am thirsty to see her. (ana mutaattishon 
liru'yatiha): 

I long for her(ana mushtakon laha ): 
THIRSTY : MUTAATTISHON . 

2. a chain of mountains, (silsilatu jibal): 
CHAIN:SILSILA . 

3. a series of events.(musalsalu/silsilatu ahdath): 
SERIES: MUSALSALU/ SILSILATU . 

4. field of knowledge.(haqlu maarifa): 
FIELD:HAQLU . 

5. kill the time.(yaqtulu L-waqta):waste 
time(yudayyi'u L-waqta) : KILL: YAOTULU 

6. give me a helping hand.(mudda lee yada 1- 
awn): help me (sa'idni) : HELPING HAND 
:YADU L-AWN . 

7. sieze the opportunity. (yantahizu I- 
fursata):benefit from something (yastafeedu 
min amren ma): SIEZE: YANTAHIZU . 

8. to see no further than one's nose.(la yara 
abada min anfihi): narrow-minded (dayyequ I- 
afuqi): FURTHER THAN ONE'S 
NOSE:ABADA MIN ANFIHI. 

9. hawks and doves.(suqoor wa hama'em): the 
bad and the good(al-ashrar wal-akhyar): 
HAWKS^SUOOOR: DQVES=HAMA'EM . 

10. he is a fox.(huwa(innahu)tha'lab): 
cunning(maker): FOX: THA'LAB . 

11. head over heels(ra'san ala 
aqeb):entirely(kullivvatan); HEAD: RA'S: 
HEELS: AOER 

12. to throw light on.( yuqee- d-daw'a ala): focus 
on(yurakkizu ala) : THROW: YULOEE: 
LIGHT: DA WON . 



Metaphors: close correspondence 

Other metaphors have close cultural 
correspondences in both languages, which use 
the same image with a word or more added, 
omitted or changed, as pointed Out at the end of 
each of the following examples: 

1 . to Save one's face.(yunqithu/yahfazu ma'a 
l-wjhi):to behave well ((yuhsinu t- 
tasarrufa): SAVE : YAHFA'ZU: 
FACE:MA'u 1-waihi: "vahfazu" (keep) 
instead of "save, ma'u"(water) added. 

2. to slam the door on.(yoosidu 1-abwaba fee 
wajhi):disregard completely (yatajahalu 
kulliyyatan): "fee wajhi" added in Arabic. 

3. to use every ounce of energy: 
(yastakhdimu kulla tharraten mina t-ta-qa 
to do one's best (la yaddakhiru juhdan/ya' 
malu kulla ma fee wus'ihi): "ounce" 
translated into "tharra" instead of "ouns". 

4. hands of the clock, (aqarebu s-sa'ati): 
"hands" (aydee) translated into 
"aqareb"(scorpions). 

5. foot of the page, (thaylu s-safhati): 
"foot"(qadam) translated "thayl" (tail). 

6. a politician who made his mark, 
(siyasiyyon taraka basamatihi): had a great 
impact(kana lahu ta'theeron kaber): 
"made" (ja'ala / sana'a) translated into 
"taraka"(Ieft). 

7. a drop in the ocean, (nuqtaton fee bahr): 
very little (qaleelon jiddan): 
"ocean "(muheet) equivalent to"bahr"(sea). 

8. show me your back, (arinee arda aktafika): 
get out (insaref):"back"(zahr) equivalent 
to "ardu I-aktafi"(width of shoulders). 

9. to take into consideration, (ya'khuthu 
bi'ayni 1-iltibar): consider (yadrusu/yada'u 
fi 1-husban): "ayn" (eye) added in Arabic. 

10. to hold power (yamsiku bizimami s- 
sultati):"zimam"(rein/bridle) added in 
Arabic. 

Loan cultural metaphors(Calques) 

Some cultural metaphors are imported into 
Arabic from English and/or other foreign 
languages. These can be considered a conscious 
cultural link between English and Arabic, and is 
possibly the strongest tie between them: 



Cross-Cultural Link in Translation 
(English-Arabic) 



Hassan Ghazala, Ph.D 



Usually cultural terras are thought to pose the most difficult problem in translation. Although 
there is always a truth in that, the problem has equally been overstated by many, if not all, translators 
and writers about translation. This can be confirmed by exploring a strong cultural link between 
English and Arabic, seemingly two sharply different cultures. 

This paper Lends to trace the cultural correspondence at translating from English into Arabic, 
or from Arabic into English, with the aim of demonstrating that there is more to the similarities than 
to the differences among different cultures in translation. This in turn strengthens the cultural ties 
among translators and, hence, among peoples belonging to a kaleidoscope of cultures, and at the some 
time can make the daunting task of translating culture less challenging than usually supposed -at least 
in some respects. 

The article covers, among other things, cultural equivalence and correspondence, cultural 
aspects of metaphors, collocations, proverbs, caiques, religious terms and technological terms, 
social/administrative/political terms. 



Introduction 

It might be redundant to redefine 
culture here, since it is an intuitive, well-known 
and widely comprehensible and acceptable 
term. What is rather more urgent for the 
purposes of this paper is to point out that the 
forthcoming discussion is limited to aspects of 
culture which can be described as rather 
common, general, more popular and frequent in 
language than others. 

But prior to the discussion of cross- 
cultural terms in English-Arabic translation, the 
main line of argument in this article, we may 
need to draw a distinction between "cultural 
equivalence" and " cultural correspondence". 
The first means the translation of a cultural 
term in the SL into an another similar one in the 
TL, which performs the same function of that 
of the SL. In other words, the cultural 
equivalence is the translation of the function of 
the cultural term like, for instance, the 
translation of "Electricity Board" into:"Al- 
muassasa al-amma lil-kahrubaa"; or "majlis 
ash-shab" into: "Parliament/House of 
Commons"; or "good afternoon" into: "masaul- 
khayri"; or- as-salamu alaykum" into: "hello"; 
etc. 



Cultural correspondence, on the other 
hand, is the absolute identification of an SL 
cultural term with another in the TL, both in 
function and description, such as translating 
"ministry" into:"wizara"; "prime minister" into 
:"raees wuzaraa or, more literally-as in 
Maghreb Countries,-"al wazeer al-awwal"; 
khawiyal-yadayn" into:"empty-handed";etc.(a 
plenty of examples will be discussed below. 

It is possible, however, that the two 
translations, the equivalent and the 
correspondent, are available in the TL. For 
instance, "majlis ashshab" is sometimes 
translated into: « the People's Assembly" and is 
as perefectly and equally comprehensible as 
"Parliament". Likewise, if ministry" is 
translated into: "amana" in one or two Arab 
Countries, and is understandable, yet less 
popular than "wizara". 

The concentration of this paper will be 
largely on the search for a possible cultural 
correspondence, absolute, or at least, close. 
And this can be explored through the following 
Major points. 



50 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



Arabic Vowels 







Front 


Central 


Back 


High 


Short 


i 




u 


Long 


T 




U 


Low 


Short 




a 




Long 




' 1 



* 


Unacceptable, ungrammatical; historical reconstructed form, protoform 


# 


Word boundary 


I-XV 


Arabic verb forms, patterns (I-X, and XI-XV) 


1PPM/F 


First person, plural, male/female 


2PDF 


Second person, dual, female 


3PSM 


Third person, singular, male 


±ant 


Anterior 


C 


Consonant 


CA 


Classical Arabic 


± cont 


Continuat 


icons 


Consonantal 


D 


Dialect 


fin. 


Female 


H 


High 'Standard' (Ferguson) 


imp. 


Imperative 


L 

ml. 

MSA 


Low 'Dialect' (Ferguson) 

Male 

Modern Standard Arabic 


o.s. 


Oneself 


s.th. 


Something 


sg. 


Singular 


±son 


Sonorant 


±str 


Strident 


± voi 


Voice 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



REFERENCES 

1) Al-Ashbfii,IbnCasfilr.(1979). ?al-Mumtic fi t-TasrVf . Beirut: Daru l-?ar3qi 1-JadTdah. 2 Vols. 

2) Abdu t-Tawwab, Ramadhan. (1983). ?at-Tatawuru 1-Lueawiv : Maoahiruhu wa Cilaluhu wa 
Oawanmuh . Cairo: Maktabatu 1-Xanji. (1985). ?al-Madxal ?ila Cilmi 1-Lufeah wa Manahiju I- 
Bahflu 1-Lugawiy . Cairo: Maktabatu l-Xflnji. 

3) Bakalla, Muhammad Hasan. (1982). Ibn Jinni: An Earlv Arab M uslim Phonetician. London & 
Taiwan: European Language Publications Ltd. 

4) Chomsky, Noam, and Halle, Morris. (1968). The Sound Pat tern of English. New York: Harper 
& Row, Publishers. 

5) Daccas, Cizzat Cubaid. (1982) Fannu t-TaiwTd . Riyadh: Maktabatu 1-Haramayn. 

6) Ferguson, Charles;. (1959). "Diglossia". In: Word. Vol. 15 # 2. August, pp.325-40 

7) Ingham, Bruce. (1971). "Some Characteristics of Meccan Arabic". In: Bulletin of the School of 
Oriental and African Studies . University of London. Vol. 34/2. 273-97 pp. 

8) Ibn Jinni, Abu 1-Fath CuGmSn. (1952). ?al-Xasg?is . Beirut: Daru 1-Huda. 3 Vols. 

9) Al-Mousa, Nihad (1984). ?an-Naht fi 1-Lu^ati 1-Carabiwah . Riyadh: Dand-Cultlm. 

10) Al-Qahtani, Duleim Masoud. (1982), "Classical Arabic Consonants". Unpublished paper. 
Washington, D.C: Georgetown University. 42 pp.(1988). "Semantic Valence of Arabic Verbs". 
Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation. Washington, D.C: Georgetown University. 2 Vols. 

11) The Holy Qur?an , (1938). Translated by Abdallah YousefAli. Beirut: Darul-Fikr. 

LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS 

The phonetic transcription system: 

Arabic Consonants 

Place of Articulation 



Manner 

of 

Articulation 


l 

'en 


! 

■o 
15 


1 


< 


a 
o 

< 


> 


D 


1 


3 
a 


Stops 


VL 








t t 




k 


q 




? 


VD 


b 






d d 












Fricatives 


VL 




f 


9 


s s 


5 




X 


h 


h 


VD 






6 6 


z 






g 


V 




Affricate 










J 










Nasals 


m 






n 












Lateral 








1 












Trill 








r 












Semivowels 


w 








y 











Emphatic 



48 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



16) ma ?in man lammS lann 
?an ?alla laisa la ?am hall ?amma 
?ala lawma lawla halla ?alla 
ball ?innama ?illa gayr mS cada 
ma xaia law la siyyama 

In addition, Iml is prefixed to some verbs 
(a) to derive names of instruments (b) in 
(20.17). 

17a) fatah 'to open' 

b) miftah 'key' 

a) nafax 'to blow' 

b) minfax 'wind pump' 

a) naqa§ 'to extract' 

b) minqaS 'chisel' 

a) qarat . 'to cut' 

b) miqrat 'nail cutter* 

The object pronoun "-na" 'us' is suffixed to verbs as in 
(20.1 8 & 19). 

1 8) ra?atna 'she saw us' 

19) ?astaqbalna 'he received us, we 
received s.o.' 

The suffix "-an" is added to nouns to make 
proper names as in (20.20). 

20) cuOman - nucman - salman - 
gadban - jimcan - fihran flayhan 



In order to make antonyms, sonorant consonants 
are used as in (20.21) in MSA. 

21a) namaq 'to embellish, adorn (s.th.)' 

b) lamaq 'to rub, erase (s.th.)' 
Moreover, blending and coinage as processes of 
lexical constructions, include the four sounds as in 
(20.22) in CA. 

22) salid+ sadam — ►saldam 'lion; hard; tough' 

8. Sonorant Clusters 

There seems to be no restriction on the occurrence 
of certain combinations and clusters of sonorant 
consonants, along with vowels necessary to make up 
syllables, except for one case. In the structure of 
words of Arabic origin (i.e. infinitives of CA), the 
syllable /na/ followed by a cluster of /rC/ is hardly 
found in Arabic. Those in (21 . 1 - 9) are loan-words. 
17.1) Narjis 'narcissus' 

Persian 

2) nawraj 'threshing machine, thresher* 

3) narjTl 'coconut oil' Persian (Sanskrit) 

4) narjilah 'hookah' Persian (Sanskrit) 

5) narbij 'mouth piece of a nargile' 

6) nard 'backgammon, tricktrack' 

7) nardTn 'nard, spikenard" 

8) narfazah 'nervousness' 

9) naranj 'bitter orange' Persian (Sanskrit) 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



meaning in common to make trilateral verbs as 

in (20.6 - 8). 

Initially, M , IV , and hi are prefixed to 

give the same meaning as the root verb (20.6) 
6) Oall & naQul 'to be low, base' 
farr & nafai 'to flee' 
tall & natal 'to bespray; squeeze out' 
Gall & na6al 'to tear down, overthrow' 
5arr & nasar 'to spread out (s.th.)' 
jarr & najar 'to drag; hew' 
habb& lahib 'to start, rush; catch fire' 
mass & lamas 'to touch' 
fatt & rafat 'to break (s.th.)' 
fadd & rafad 'to support, aid (s.o.)' 
Medially, IV and hi are infixed to give the 

same meaning as the root verb (20.7). 

7) 5aqq & Salaq to split lengthwise (s.th.)' 
faqq & faraq 'to separate, divide (s.th.)' 
qatt & qarat 'to cut (s.th.) into small pieces' 
qass & qaras 'to pinch, nip (s.th.)' 
saqq& sariq 'to choke' 

Finally, I ml and l\l are suffixed to the root 

verb in (20.8) to give the same common 
meaning, 'cut'. 

8) qatt , qatam & qatal 

qass , qasam , qasal & qasar 

kass , kasam & kasar 

ja6o , jadam & jaoar 

jazz , jazam , jazal & jazar 

A quadriliteral and quintiliteral verb must 

have at least one of the "huriif ?ad-dalaqah" in 

its composition or structure. 

To make different meanings, different sounds 

are added in fixed positions to stems formed of 

/ml and hi as in (20.9- 11). 

Initially, to "-aram" (for the general meaning 

'cut'): 

9) Oaram jaram haram xaram 
garam sad am caram garam 

Medially, to "ni-am" (for the general 
meaning 'cut'): 

10) ratam raOam rajam radam 
rasam ra§am radam radam 
ragam raqam rakam 

Finally, to "rama-" (with different meanings): 



11) ramah ramid ramaz rama§ 
ramad ramaq ramal 

The sounds that are added to words in the process 
ofaffixationareten: 

- three sonorant consonants: /ml, 
In/, and IV, 

- four other consonants: /?/, IXl, Is/, 
and/h/, and 

- the three long vowels: A'/, /u7. 
and /a/. 

In the process of conjugation and affixation of 
morphemes both derivational and inflectional Iml 
and In/ are very often used as in the following cases 
(20.12 & 13). 

12) katab 'write' 

naktub '( 1 PP) imperfect indicative' 

taktubani '(2PD) " " 

yaktubna '(3PPM) " subjunctive' 

istaktabtuma '(2PD) perfective' 

maktubun 'past participle' 

maktab 'office' 

13) kan '(past) to be' 
kuntum '2PPM 
kuntunna '2PPF' 
kunna '1PP' 

In verbs forms: 

14) VII ?inFaQaL 

XIV ?iFCanLaL 

XV ?iFCanLa 

Moreover, it was found that most, if not all, 
particles in Arabic are formed with one or more of 
the sonorant or bilabial consonants. For limitations 
of space they will be listed without their meanings in 
English. The following in (20.15) are simple 
prepositions, adverbs and nouns. 

15) min can ?ila li bi maca lada 
cala mud3 nahu cind qibal qabl bayn dun 
?amiim quddam wara? xalf hawl 

The letter "1-" is prefixed to words to give ten 
different meanings (e.g. reason, possession, 
exclamation, etc.). The definite article "?al" 'the' is 
an extremely frequent particle with a sonorant 
consonant. 

Other particles, some of which co-occur with 
nouns and verbs, are such as those in (20.16). 



46 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



In the first stage of acquisition, M was glided 
to lyl in (14.1), then changed to IV in a later 
stage in (15.11). 

63 Deletion 

(16.1) m -» kambyiitar->kabyutar 'computer* 

2) n — *0 yijannin — ► yjinna 'it dazzles' 

3) manSafah -> ma5§afah 'towel' 

4) l->o hulwah -►huwwah '(3PS) pretty" 

5) jib la nM -►jibna 'bring for us' 

6) r->0 ?irkab -+?ikkab 'ride, get on' 

7) casir -»casi* 'juice' 

The change in (16.1) is perhaps a reduction of an 
unacceptable consonant cluster. 

6.4 Metathesis 



(17.1) maknasah- 
2) laban 



mankasah 'sweeper' 
balan 'buttermilk' 



6.5 Epenthesis 

(18.1) 0->n qui li -> qulli -» qiilni 'say to me' 
This change, (18.1), is probably on the 
analogy of forms like those in (18.2 - 4) below, 
where "-ni" is the first person singular object 
suffix. 

2) silni 'carry me, pick me up' 

3) catni 'give me' 

4) Mbbni 'kiss me, love me' (D, MSA) 
This process is a form of neutralization. 

6.6 Assimilation 

In a later stage of acquisition, children move 
from addition and deletion of sounds to more 
complicated sound change processes (e.g. 
assimilation). The change in (19.1 & 2) 
exemplifies this. That change continues to the 
adult language in the Hijazi and Sudanese 
dialects. 
(19.1) ?al-jannah-> ?ajjannah 'Paradise' 

2) ?al-jamicah— ► ?ajjamcah 'the university' 

The /j/ sound is the only "samsi" 'sun' letter 
(+ coronal), before which /]/ of the definite 
article "?al-" does not assimilate. However, it 
does in (19.1 & 2) in some dialects and in the 
acquisition of Arabic by children. According to 
the pattern congruity criterion, speakers perhaps 



try to fill holes or vacancies in the sound patterns of 
Arabic by this change. This illustrates the principle 
of Martinet that sound systems change in the 
direction of regularity. 

7. Frequency of Sounds 

For the etymologies of Arabic verbs and other 
subsequent derivations, the author has relied on the 
following sources: Al-Ashbili (1979), Ibn Jinni 
(1952), and Al-Mousa (1984). 

The term 'etymology*, in Arabic "?al-?i5tiqaq'\ 
is synonymous with 'derivation', the formation of a 
new word from an existing word, root or stem, by 
the addition of an affix (prefix, infix, or suffix) or by 
other means. In the West, 'etymology" is traditionally 
used for the study of origins and history of the form 
and meaning of words. In this study, it will be used 
with the Arabic connotation. This includes processes 
of lexical constructions, in Arabic "?an-naht", such 
as 'blending' and 'coinage'. 

The Arabic phrase says it all: "ziyadatu 1-mabna 
ziyadatun fi 1-macna". This is roughly rendered as 
'structure extension is meaning extension". In (20.1), 
repeating the syllable in the structure of (b) is 
employed to mean repeating the action of 'pulling'. 



(20.1a) jarr 
b) jarjar 



'to drag, pull (s.th)' 

'to pull (s.th.) back and forth 



Many verbs, mostly infinitives, in the language 
form sets of minimal pairs with a difference in one 
sound. That sound is commonly one of the so-called 
in Arabic "huruf ?a6-daiaqah", roughly 'liquids' 
(sonorants + bilabials), (/b/ , HI , Iml , In/ , IV , 
and hi). These sets (20.2 - 8) often share one 
common meaning. The verbs in (20.2) share the 
general meaning of 'companionship, friendliness'. 
2) lasam lamas malasmasal salam samal 
Those in (20.3) also share the common meaning of 
'hit'. 

3)lamak lakam malak makal kamal kalam 
The ones in (20.4) mean "deviation from a particular 
position'. 

4) jaraf jalaf janaf 

The ones in (20.5) mean 'holding together'. 

5) jabal jaban jabar 

Similarly, the four sounds are added in the 
derivation process to bilateral verbs having one 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



3) fanSyil — ► falayin 'underwear "T shirts" ' 

4) la9nah — > naclah 'curse' 
r " 1 

5) silindir— * isirindil 'cylinder 1 
m 

6) ?anYmya — » ?aml!nya 'anemia' 

7) *cim -» ma<; 'with' 

8) ydassim -* ydammis 'enrich (s.th.) with fat' 
n 

9) zanjabi'l — ► janzabYl 'ginger* 

10) tanahnah — ► tahanhan 'to hem, say "ahem" ' II 

1 1) nacjah — ► canjah 'female sheep, ewe' Syrian 

12)taxallaf talaxxabaftaxallbat 'to mix things up' V 

13) xallaflaxbat " xalba* II 

14) talawwa ->?altawa 'to twist (o.s.)'V -» VII 

15) ?ahbal-» ?ablah 'dim-witted, weak-minded' 

16) ?iltahaf-+ talahhaf 'to wrap o.s. (in)' V1I-+ V 

17) fahlawi— >falhawi 'skillful; well-versed' Syria 
r 

18) *burkah -» rukbah 'knee' 

19) rayid — » dayir 'wanting' Sudanese 

20) ?ar3nib — » ?ananb 'rabbits' Egyptian 

21) kabrtt -> karbYt 'box of matches' 

22) xayzaran — ► xayrazan 'cane, reed; rattan' 

23) narfaz -► nafraz 'got nervous' 

24) kahrab — > karhab 'electricity' 

25) hawari — >haw3yir 'quarters, parts(of a city)' 

26) caqrab — » carqab 'scorpion' 

27) mizrab -*■ mirzab 'spout' 

28) hawari -+ hswayir 'districts' Hijaz 

29) gurl — > rugl 'foreskin, prepuce' 
In CA, the two forms in each pair in (13.30 - 

32) have closely related meanings. 

30) cawl calw 'high' 

31) waql walq 'climbing, mounting' 

32) laqw lawq 'treatment' 

Metathesis not only takes place within words 
but extends over word boundary in a form of 
consonant transposition. 

33) ?0qba li n-najah -+?uqbal in-najah; 'outcome 

is success!' 

34) waylun li ?ummih -» wayl ummah 'woe unto 

his mother!' 

(13.33) is in MSA, while (13.34) is in D. The 
same thing took place in English (Abdu t- 
Tawwab 1983:105) as in (13.35 & 36) with the 



suprasegmental phoneme 'open (plus) juncture' as 
part of the metathesis. 

35) a napron — > an apron 

36) anekename -» a nick name 

The same thing applies to the French "la licorne" 
'unicorn' (H. Bell: personal communication), and the 
Arabic "?iskandariyyah" 'Alexandria'. 

6. Acquisition of Sounds 

In regard to the four sonorant consonants, children 
acquire sounds, at the early stages, then the sound 
system and phonological patterns of the language at 
later stages. These stages exhibit the following six 
phonological processes (6.1 - 6) in D. 

6.1 Gliding 

In the acquisition of sounds children tend to glide 
hi and IV to lyl and /w/ during the early stages of 
acquisition as in (14.1 - 6). 
(14.1) r~+y rabbi yabbi 'myGod' 

2) l->y halTb hayib 'milk' 

3) r-*w kabrtt kabwtt 'box of matches' 

4) l-+w walad wawad "boy' 

The same gliding occurs in English in (14.5 & 6). 

5) r— >w bread bwid 

6) ring wing 

6.2 Transposition 



Once they acquire these sounds they start 
interchanging them as in (15.1 - 1 1). 

(15.1) n — ► 1 naml laml 'ant' 

2) ncal l?al 'shoe' 

3) mazin mazil "Mazen(man's name)' 

4) l->ntilifun tinifun 'telephone' 

5) r -*■ 1 sayyarah sayy&lah 'car' 

6) kawrah kawlah 'bain 

7) kabir kabil 'big' 

8) mari'd mali'd 'sick' 

9) daktiir daktul 'doctor, physician' 

10) niir nUl 'light' 

11) rabbi labbi 'myGod' 

Those in (15.1,2 & 4) are examples of consonant 
harmony such as that in (15.12). 



12) dug -> gug 



44 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



5) 



'dower, bridal money' 



8. And above all, when Ixl is geminated, the 
trilling becomes prominent with the 
articulator making lengthy trills. The 
examples in (9.1 & 2) are from the Hijazi 
dialect, (9.3 & 4) from the Southern dialect 
of Saudi Arabia, and (9.5 & 4) in MSA. 
'outside' 
'the passenger' 
'tea pot' 

'(adj.) not telling the truth' 
'to give up, abandon (s.th.)' 
'to date (a letter), write the 
history of (s.th.)* 
Because the structural description (SD), in the 
left side, and structural change (SC), in the right 
side, of the domain of the above seven rules are 
different, it was not possible to collapse all the 
rules into one. 

However, rules [2] and [3] alone are 
collapsed in rule [9], and rules [4], [5], and [6] 
are collapsed in rule [10] below. 



(9.1) 


barra 


2) 


?arrMkib 


3) 


barrad 


4) 


xarrat 


5) 


farrat 


6) 


?arrax 



[9] 



[10] 



|- front | 



+ vocalic 
L=. tense J 



In the following three environments, 
however, Ixl tends to be of a flap nature Ixl. 
1- If it is followed by the short high 

vowel I'll. 



[11] 



(10.1) 
2) 



mann 
rimO 



+ vocalic 
+ high 



'flexible' 
'log raft' 



2- If it is preceded by the short high 
vowel l\l and followed by a consonant. 



[12] 



+ vocalic 
+ high 
^_ tense 



(11.1) mirzab 'water-spout, (roof) gutter* 

2) mirtah '(he) be relaxed, under no pressure' 

3) mirhad 'path tub, wash basin' 

3- If it comes in final position or is followed 
by a consonant and preceded by a long high 
vowel (Til and /U/). 



[13] 



+ vocalic 
+ high 
+ tense 



--S 



(12.1) hamir 


'donkeys' 


2) cayr 

3) cir 

4) birhum 


'wild ass, onager' 
'caravan' 
'their well' 


5) casfur 


'bird' 


5. Metathesis 





The four sonorants undergo many sound changes 
in a number of phonological processes. Metathesis is 
chosen as an example of these phonological 
processes. This process refers to the alternation in 
the sequence of sounds within a word. It is generally 
known in Arabic as "qalb", or "?iqlab", and 
precisely "?al-qalb ?al-makani", changing places. 
This involves redistribution of consonants. In other 
words, it is a change of the linear order of segments 
by permutations of one type or another. Below, in 
(13.1 - 5), two segments reverse positions. In (13.6 - 
27) one of the sonorant consonants changes 
positions. 

In certain cases, the metathesis is apparent only 
by reference to cognates in other languages. Abdu t- 
Tawwab (1983:58) says that the Proto-Semitic form 
in (13.7) has similar cognates in Hebrew and 
Aramaic. Moreover, he (ibid) explains that the 
reconstructed form in (13.18) has the cognates from 
Hebrew 'bereh/', Aramaic *burka*, and Ethiopic •berk'. 

nl " In 

(13.1) banalti -► balanti 'penalty 

1 " n 

2) finilah-»fili'nah 'underwear "T shirt" ' 



AL-USSAN AL-ARABI 



Probably the rolled [r] in Scottish English is the 
nearest of all. 

However, the trilling of hi is clear in the 
following conditioned environments. The first 
seven rules are from Daccas (1982:84). The 
translation, statement of rules, and examples are 
those of the present author. 
1. If it is followed by a back rounded vowel 

(/u/ and /U/). . 



[2] 



[+ vocalic~| 
_+ round | 



(2.1) tasriin 'wi 11 you (2PPM/F) buy? 

2) qriin 'horns' 

3) rumcah 'alms, charitable gift' 

4) ruxsah 'permit' 

2. If it is followed by a low vowel (/a/ and 

/a/). 

I + vocalic I 

[3] |_- n'g 11 J 

(3.1) haram 'forbidden, prohibited' 

2) ?acras 'weddings' 

3) karam 'hospitality' 

4) carab 'Arabs, strangers' D 

3. If it is preceded by the short back vowel 
(/u/) and followed by a consonant. 



[4] 



E vocalic" 
round 
tense _ 



(4.1) murhaq 
2) murgam 



'exhausted' 
'to be forced, 
compelled (to do s.th.)' 
4. If it is preceded by the short low vowel 
(/a/) and followed by a consonant. 







+ vocalic 




[5] 




- high 

- tense 










L_ 


— ' C 


SI) 


xart 




'nonsense' 


2) 


zarc 




'aj 


Ticultural field' 



5. If it is preceded by the short vowels (/i/ and 
/a/) and followed by a consonant, 
|~+ vocalic 

- tense 

- round 



(6.1) ?arhab '(he) frightened, terrorized (s.o.)' 

2) ?arhib '(2PSM) are welcome' 

3) ?irxis '(imp. 2PSM) knock down the price' 

4) ?irfac '(imp. 2PSM) lift up (s.th.)' 

6. If it is preceded by a short vowel and followed 
by one of the consonants /x/ , /s/ , /d/ , /g/ , 
/t/ , /q/ , and /£}/. Only four of these seven 
sounds form a natural class, namely emphatic. 
Therefore, the rule appears a bit loose. 



[7] ["+ vocalic] 
- tense 



qirtas 'paper 1 CA, MSA 

qur$s 'paper' D 

tarxi's 'permission; license' 

xursan 'earrings' 

marda 'patients' 

maraqah 'meat soup' 
'(he) goes up' 



(7.1) 
2) 
3) 
4) 
5) 
6) 
7) 
8) 

7. In final position when preceded by a consonant 
coming after a short vowel. 



yirqS '(he) goes up' 

?irdif '(imp.2PSM) make"rit>ifah", a kind of food 



[8] 

(8.1) 
2) 
3) 
4) 



E 1 ; 



| - tense 
round 1 

C i 

qabr 'grave' 

qidr 'cooking pot' 

hijr 'lap' 

muhr 'foal, colt' 



42 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



Common Features of Sonorant Consonants 



+ cons 
+ son 



Table 2 

It even suffices to say that they form a 
natural class in the sense that they are the only 

sounds in Arabic bearing the features + cons . 
[_+ sonsj 

The sonorant sound, with resonance, produced 
with a configuration of the vocal tract cavity that 
allows spontaneous voicing. This resonant 
quality of the sonorant feature includes nasals, 
liquids, semivowels, and vowels. As can be 
inferred from the nature of these sounds, the 
feature of sonority is musical. 

4. Variations of Sounds 

The lateral IV and the trill Irl are produced 
in two varieties or allophones for each. The two 
phones of III are not contrastive, and the same 
holds for the two phones of hi. In other words, 
this variation does not change meaning. Since 
each variant of IV is found in mutually 
exclusive environments, it can be delfloratrated 
that they are in complementary distribution. 
The same applies for Irl. This is acceptable as 
long as there are no minimal pairs found in the 
language to demonstrate a separate phonemic 
status for the variants. The contexts for each 
variant are listed below. Examples are given 
from D. 

4.1 The Lateral N 

Arabic has light, 'bright', or 'clear' [1] 
"muraqqaqah", and dark or 'heavy 1 [1] 
"mufaxxamah". As far as the point of 
articulation is concerned, the light or clear [1] is 
interdental, whereas the dark ['] is alveolar. The 
light [j] is produced with the tongue tip or blade 
touching the alveolar ridge with the air escaping 
over the sides of the tongue. The front of the 
tongue is relatively high and the back somewhat 



lowered. The dark variety is a velarized alveolar 
lateral; it is produced with a concave slope in the 
middle of the tongue. In American English, an 
approximation of the dark allophone occurs in "golf, 
"ball", "hulk", and "pull". 

The two allophones occur not only in the standard 
variety of Arabic but in dialects as well. By 
regressive assimilation the light [1] becomes dark [j] 
before emphatic consonants and after short vowels as 
in rule [1] below. Emphatic consonants, 
"mufaxxamah" 'thickened', are l\l, /$/, 141, and /§/. 
They are the 'thick' forms of the 'lightened' 
"muraqqaqah*', l\l , 161, Id/, and /s/ respectively. 

pT vocalic I 
[1] I- tense | [_+ emphatic | 

Examples are given in (1.1 - 9) from D. 

(1.1) t ga|t 'he made a mistake' 

2) mu|t 'naked' 

3) qa'at 'he came in (as a quest)' 

4) $ ga|Q 'to become thick' 

5) ga'iQ 'it thickened' 

6) s qa|s 'dragging along, trailing on 

the ground' 

7) malas 'slipped away, escaped' 

8) d *qa|d 

Due to the lack of examples with /d/ two 
hypothetical words [labelled with asterisks] are given 
in (1.8 & 9). In other instances, almost all speakers 
pronounce "?a'lah" 'God' with dark [j], while some 
pronounce "qajb" *heart' with dark [j] as commonly 
used in the Gulf area. 

4.2 The Trill Irl 

In most occurrences of the Irl sound in Arabic it 
is a trill, and in few others a flap. Unlike the rolled 
or flapped sounds of Irl as in many languages, the 
Arabic Irl is of a more trilling nature in most of its 
occurrences in dialects, MSA, and CA. The Spanish 
"pero" 'but' and "perro" 'dog' show the difference 
between the alveolar flap and alveolar trill. In short, 
whereas the flaps have only one tap of the active 
articulator, trills have two or more. Italian and some 
dialects of French and German also have the trill. 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



With reference to ceitain secondary features of 
articulation, some have commented on the four 
sounds as: 

• "muraqqaqah", 'lightened' (bright, 
clear, light) : /m/ and /n/ 

• "mufaxxamah", 'thickened; 
emphatic' (dark, heavy) : /I/ and Ixl 
2. Articulatory Features 

Before proceeding with further analysis, it 
may be appropriate to examine the nature of the 
production of these four sounds. To begin with, 
the four phonetic segments are presented in 
minimal pairs from the dialect of Rufaydah 
(henceforth D), a tribe in the southern region of 
Saudi Arabia: 

Initially /m/ mas 'not well' 

Id nas '(he) mentioned' 

l\l las 'nothing' 

Ixl ra§ 'he saw you (sg. fm.)' 

Medially/m/ Same 'wax' 

/n/ sane 'horrible' 

l\l sale 'tear, rip' 

Ixl sarc 'legislation' 

Finally Iml Sam 'north 

Id san '(he) turned bad' 

IV sal '(he) picked up (s.th.)' 

hi sar '(he) gave consultation, advice' 

Minimal pairs were chosen from D over 
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and Classical 
Arabic (CA) because it has been postulated that 
"the L [D] phonology is the basic system and the 
divergent features of H [MSA and CA] 
phonology are either a subsystem or a 
parasystem" (Ferguson, 1959:335). Dialects 
often have sounds that do not occur in MSA such 
as /g/ ; and they often lack sounds that occur in 
MSA. This is especially true in cases such as 
using 111 in D for /d/ of MSA, as in Hijazi and 
Egyptian dialects. In this regard, Ingham alludes 
to the non-occurrence of /9/ and 151 in the 
Makkan dialect (Ingham, 1971). Therefore, 
speakers of that dialect say "laziz" for the MSA 
form "laoia" 'delicious, delectable'. Moreover, 
MSA and CA both have the four sonorant 
consonants in their phonetic systems. 



Each of the four consonants is a well defined 
sound in the inventory of segmental phonemes in D 
as well as in the standard variety of Arabic. 

By contrasting the four sonorants in the above list 
of minimal pairs, in terms of voice, place of 
articulation, and manner of articulation, the sounds 
can be identified as: 

Iml a voiced bilabial nasal 
/n/ a voiced apico-alveolar nasal 
IV a voiced apico-alveolar lateral 
hi a voiced apico-alveolar trill 

In the case of the two nasals, the mouth is closed 
at some point so the air is ejected through the nasal 
cavity with the soft palate lowered. The tip of the 
tongue (the apex) makes a trill of at least two taps 
with the pressure of air producing the Arabic hi. 

3. Binary Features 

The phonetic classification matrix in (table 1) is 
built according to the theory developed by Chomsky 
and Halle (1968). The plus sign indicates that the 
sound in the vertical column has the feature in the 
horizontal row category (Al-Qahtani, 1982:39). 

Binary Features of Sonorant Consonants 





m 


N" 


r 


r 


Consonantal 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


Sonorant 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


Anterior 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


Coronal 




+ 


+ 


+ 


High 








+ 


Continuant 


+ 


+ 






Voice 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


Strident 










Nasal 


+ 


+ 







Table 1 

An examination of the features in table 1 
indicates that the four sounds share five common 
features as summarized in table 2 below. 



THE NATURE OF ARABIC SONORANT CONSONANTS 



DULEIM MASOUD AL-QAHTANP 



Abstract 

This is an introductory article on the nature of 
Arabic Iml, Inl, IV, and hi sounds. It is fairly 
descriptive. Two subsequent articles, by the same 
author, will deal with sound changes, namely 
interchangeability, and epenthesis and deletion. 
The present study gives a historical view on how the 
sounds were described by early Arabic grammarians 
and then shows their articulatory and binary 
features. It also lists their variations and discusses 
metathesis. Moreover, it shows the acquisition of 
these consonants by children with attention to 
gliding, transposition, deletion, metathesis, 
epenthesis, and assimilation. Finally, it illustrates 
the frequency of the sonorants in the language and 
the constraints on their occurrence. 



1. Historical View 






The four sonorant consonants, namely Iml, 


Inl, 


M, and hi, 


exist in all Semitic languages. 


Abdu 


t-Tawwab ( 


;i985:226) gives the following 


account: 




/m/ 


mala?a 


Arabic 'to fill up' 




male 


Hebrew 




mlS 


Aramaic 




mal'a 


Ethiopic 




malii 


Akkadian 


Inl 


nafax 


Arabic 'to blow' 




nafah 


Hebrew 




nfah 


Aramaic 




nafha 


Ethiopic 




bapaht 


Akkadian 


l\l 


lubb 


Arabic 'mind; kernel; 
core; prime' 




leb 


Hebrew 




lebba 


Aramaic 




leb 


Ethiopic 




libbu 


Akkadian 



hi ras Arabic 'head' 

rag Hebrew 

tisa Aramaic 

re's Ethiopic 

r85u Akkadian 

Medieval Arab grammarians classify the 
phonemes of Arabic according to their articulation, 
and Bakalla (1982) provides us with a master key to 
this heritage. However, their phonetic description 
focuses upon the points of articulation. Some of 
these works written between 700 - 1200 C.E. are: 
1 - Sibawaih: ?al-Kitab 
2- IbnJinni: Sirr Sinacat ?al-?icrab 

3 -Al-Khalil Bin Ahmad Al-Farahidi: Kitab?al- 
£ay_H 

4 - Az-Zamakhshari: Mufassal 

5 - Al-Mubarrad: ?al-Kamil 

6 - Ibn Sina: Risalah fi ?asbab HudiiO ?al-Huriif 

The following two categories present some of the 
distinguishing features that grammarians give to the 
four sounds under questions. 

1 . On the basis of the point of articulation. 
"dulaqiyyah'Vapical' or roughly 'liquids':/n/, l\l and Ixl 
"Safawiyyah", 'labial': Iml 

2. On the basis of the manner of articulation and 
distinctive features. 

• "bayniyyah",'sonorants' (literally 'medial') : 
all four 

• "munxafidah", 'non-emphatic' (low):all 
four (but mostly IV, hi) 

• "sahihah", 'consonantal' (true): all four 

• "munharifah", 'lateral* : IV 

• "mukarrarah", 'trilled' : hi 

• "gunnah", 'nasal' : /m/and Inl 

• "xafifah", 'lax' (light) : Iml, Inl, and IV 

• "Oaqi'lah", 'tense' (heavy) : hi 

• "majhUrah'"voiced' : all four 



' 'Ph. D. Georgetown University- Jubail Industrial College - Jubail Industrial City, Saudi Arabia 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



192.^^1 p. 228. 
193.0p. cit, p. 224. 
194. j&»* p. 200. 
!%5i> p P '21 5 l'lt is questionable though whether the word was Arabicized in its plural form owing to the 

presence of the awkward singular form ijl— 
197.^jjjK»p.405. 
198.«^Wlp.251. 

^(W ^ MS. ironically, this word is etymologically of an Arabic origin Jj which was passed on to other 
languages (including Italian, French and English) and was later Arabicized as **~j. 

202 2'ji'i P D 13 (See note under derivation from loanwords with regard to its etymological background). 
203'.££ p. 342. The translation is by J. Stetkevych, pp. 59-60. The parenthesis as well as some minor alterations 

are mine. 
204.1bid. 

205.AU (1987), p. 99. 
206.^^1 p. 6. 

207.(/j»j?Jl i C u- J> , as quoted by lf h^ , p. 18. 
208.Ai(1987),p.98. 
209.v-Ap.211. 

lu^wpte'zrc mentioned in ^ p. 19 yet without providing any etymological background information 

as to their source language or onginal forms. 
212.1bid. 
213vW>P-5, 
214.Aots-.P- 201 

215. (^-jS j*, p. 22, traces its origin back to Spanish : barril. 
216.AH ,p. 114. 
218^ d j « p 13 It is of questionable etymologyy ; it could be from French 'manoeuvre' or Latin 

^anuoTera' Yet, being a relatively recent lexical entry and in view of the proximity ui pronunciation w,th 

either refrences with regard to source language(s) . the analysis of changes is mine. 
220. v^'. (.1371), p. 205. 

S'*!dr^"iSfrM au * or anonymous), UJ uu> ^ ***(** tf jjja, p.427) 
223.v^>,p.20,88and ^LjSJ , p. 778,799, 1082-83. 
224.^^1 iiiSi £-?- *Vs 4*>J>, PP- 18-21. 
225. ^jjj^i,p. 165. 



38 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



141.^0* p. 315. 

l42.Greek according to ^>*Ji p. 269, but Persian according to j£ , P. 142. 

1 43. Persian according to jA p. 65 while according to ^-*» p 176 it is Greek (dokneion). 

44.j*i,p. 61. 

45.^ W , p. 222. 

46.,/^ , p. 173. 

47.0p. cit,. p. 259. 

48. ^W . P- 243. 

49.^^,118. 

50. n»J **, p. 83. 

51.jA,P-77. 

52. f^j» ■>*, p, 66, 

53.0p. cit., p, 80, 

54. fj».J> ^c,p. 156. 

55.Bakalla. , p. 76. 

56.^ j» **, P- 133. 

57.^^1, p. 261. 

58.^^176. 

59.The Latin transcriptions of Syriac loanwords are quoted as cited by ^W. P- 177,188,177 and 180 

respectively. 
60.4i>iH , pp. 425-6 
61.Baka)la,p.41. 
62.AJLWJM, P- 342. 
63.^1^1, p.5. 
64.^_Ap.l5,82. 
65.fia.jll J*, p. 165. 
66.0p. cit., 243. 
67.jAP-145. 
68. ^pj-A p. 212. 
69. v *>Ji,p.41. 
70.jAP.21. 
71.^-rtp. 179. 
72.jiAp. 119. 
73.0p. cit., p.4. 
74.0p. cit., p. 100. 
7S. V -A p. 179. 
76.A1I example of Syriac loanwords are taken from : ^W P .173-75, 177, 180, 187, 190, 191, 197, 202, 206, 

208,209, However, the use of Arabic letters in source word transcription is ours. 
77.^^-JI, p. 252. 
78.0p. cit., p. 263. 
79.^ p. 176 . 
80.Op. cit., p. 266. 
81. Op. cit., p. 271. 
82.1bid. 

83.^1.^,^15,82. 
.M.^j-Ap.279. 
85. jA p. 150. 
86.^-* p. 175. 
87.jAp.21. 
88.,/jW, p. 247. 
89.jA,p.4. 

90.Formore examples, see ^jSM p. 15, 82, 85 
.91.j»Sp.61. 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



93. Op. cit., p. 172 The |u;| in most loanwords of Syriac origin is changed to an •— »fl in Arabic. 

94. Op. cit., p. 208. 

95. According to ^ cri, there are no such names in Arabic which end in a final preceded by a <~± except in 
the verbs >uj and j j« (see i^jjJSH, p. 396). Yet, J-li J>. attributes the change to the presence of a word 
pattern J«i in Arabic. See his article « Persian Words in Ancient Arabic"in Bulletin of the Faculty of Arts, 
Cairo, vol. 19, 1951, p. 63. 

96. g^j-jH , p. 2.58. 

97. #*J **■ , p. 26. 

98. y^j-jll , p. 2.30. 

99. ^j»J*,p. 125. 
lOO.Op. cit., p. 26. 
101.^^1, p. 278. 
102.Op. cit., p. 255. 
\Q3.J^\j^,p.99. 
104.^^1, p. 184. 

105.MJ*- , pp. 242-3. Translated by Bakalla, pp. 72-3 (with adaptation). 

lOe.^iJijAp. 6, 

107. Ibid. 

108.vi.ju-> , vol. I, p. 274. 

109.Thomberg,p. 530. 

110._jAp.21. 

1 1 1 .Both Greek words from ^c >-Jl , p. 25 1 . 

112.^j!i^.,p. 18 

113.0p.cit.,p.41. 

114.^jli^p.93. 

115.jAp.59. 

116.^^1,^261. 

117.0p.Cit,.p. 197. 

1 18.0p. cit,. p. 188. Note the first |g|-» ^ while the second |g| -<■ E 

1 19.^ p. 182. 

120. .,*_»-», p. 2 15. 

121.u^i,P-68. 

122. Adapted from Simpson, p. 71. 

123.Ali(1987)p. 117. 

124. Ibid. 

125.Thombergp. 53. ... _,_.„__. ... 

126.M. R. Zughloul, 'Lexical Interference of English in Eastern Province Saudn Arabia , Anthropological 

Linguistics 20, quoted by Thomgerg, p 532. 
127.Thornberg, p. 532. 

128.She acknowledges this tact but under another section. 
129.Op.cit,p.530. 
130.Thornberg, p. 530. 
131.0p.Cit.,p. 534-5. 
132.Aua-,p.342. 

!34 Trfereadefmay notice that most loanwords with foreign vowels in this section come from French which by far 

'has the most versatile vowel system. Consequently, French vowels are often susceptible to modifications. 
135.^jjjisii,p394. 
136.1bid. 
137Ibid. 
138.1bid. 

HaSet, p. 448. The parantheses are mine. For more on the subject, see section 4.3. on misspelling and 
mispronunciation. 



36 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



45. .yLJtjaJi, p. 302. 

46. jAp. 109. 

47. </o«Ap. 194. 

48. jA P- 8. He also gives a possible Sanskrit origin : ragavan. 

49. Op. cit., p. 68. 

50. Op. cit., p. 4. 

51. ^>-»,p.255. 

52. ^Vm-M, in J&&&, p. 10 as cited by <fjjJSl\, p. 371. 

53. ^jB j«, p. 96. 

54. ^ej-A p. 258. 

55. jA p. 150 attributes the origin of this word to Persian, yet we are of the opinion that the Greek origin 'ankura' 
is phonemically more likely. 

56. Again, this is a case df questionable etymology : whereas ^ jJ p. 230 attributes it to Persian jS*a, the editor 
of his book claims that it is a genuinely Arabic word (sec. ^ijllj^Ji, p. 230). 

57. As was stated earlier under ji — ► o~> js^ P- 109 traces it back to Persian o~S while, here, ^-«i, p. 175 refers it 
back to Syriac. 

58. f^jb j*. p. 53. 

59. o*Ap-61. 

60. ^j-yli, p. 260. 

61. jAp. 109. 

62. <^UiJl(1325),p.69. 

63. jAp-109. 

64. See ^j**- pp. 342-3 where he cites the Persian loanwords ^jmjS 'having incomplete teeth' and tJjjS or &J 
'store or tavern'. 

65. tfjjja, p.390. 

66. Ibid 

67. Ali, p. 109-110. 

68. Ibid 

69. el-Skeikh, p. 440. 

70. M^p.343. 

71. Irrespective of any IPA transcription of the original vowel in the source language, we are mainly concerned, 
here, with representing the exact (but hypothetical) Arabic equivalent in contrast with the actual vowel in the 
Arabicized form. 

72. ^cj-JI, p. 280. 

73. ^j-jB, p. 282. 

74. ^p. 175. 

75. Ibid 

76. (^j-Ji, p. 25. 

77. Collins English Dictionary , p. 971. 

78. jjAP-95. 

79. Collins English Dictionary , p. 895. 

80. jAp. 159. 

81. ^j-^p.254. 

82. Op. cit.,p.261. 

83. Op. cit., p.212. 

84. ^jB^t.p. 154. 

85. Collins Dictionary, p. 2 19. 

86. Op. cit., p. 73. 

87. jAp. 137. 

88. Op. cit, p. 263. 

89. ^ j-Ji, p. 258. 

90. Op.ciy.,p.241. 

91. Op. cit, p. 253. 

92. ^^Jip.230. 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



NOTES 

1. AH, p. 87 

2. Holden, p.4. 

3. Thormberg, p.524. 

4. AH, p. 87 

5. op. cit., pp. 97-8 

6. tf j>J,pl71. 

7. ^jH»inj»>B,voll,p.304. 

8. ,^-l.p. 17. 

9. ^ji-J* , quoted by Jjt , p.86. 

10. igt asJi, p. 189, 14-15, 167, 186, 153, 62, 36 respectively. 

11. Quoted by ^^l , p.72. 

12. 118^.^. 

13. Aziz, in META, p. 80. 

14. ^p.118. 

15. Sibawayh, al-kitab, vol. 2, p.342. Note that original Arabic text includes words like' may, or, often, frequently 
which indicate that such rules admit exceptions and anomalies and arc by no means conclusive. 

16. 351 u-'yuji^ 

17. I owe the division of segmental changes to Ali (1987), pp.108-9. 

18. <ija>*, p.342, the translation is by Bakalla, p.72. 

1 9. AjjyM, pp.342- 3, the translation is by Bakalla, p.72. 

20. In JyijA the origin of J^UJ, is given the Syriac JjjUS'However, on p. 188, he cites the Syriac Jo^for 
JyUl to which the editor j&Ugives the Hebrew origin-J^! 

21. jw ^ p. 127 cites the Persian origin as jJ **& . Therefore, the £ is not an Arabic sound. 

22. ^1^(1325), p.4. 

23. ^^^.90,118,209,221. 

24. The reader may notice that some Syriac, Hebrew and other loanwords may at times appear in Arabic characters 
and at others in Latin alphabet. Our purpose is to preserve the form and, hence, the pronunciation of word 
according to the way they are quoted in our sources. 

25. ^.*J,p.90. 

26. ^j-Jl, p. 256. 

27. (j( *UjJ{1325 A.H), p. 170. Notice that the Persian E is actually closer in pronunciation to fel, a mixture of a E 
and j, hence the change to j, osu- and the -a* 

28. fjjJSt, p.382. 

29. J?**, p. 95. 

30. ^j-Ji.p.172, 

31. ^j»^,p- 155. 

32. ^bA p. 209. 

33. Op. cit., p. 27. 

34. lsjjJSB, p. 380. 

35. J&s* p. 352, attributes this change to the fact that in Arabic there is no such segmental sequence, since a j 
cannot be preceded by a a 

36. ^j»^,p.45. 

38 ^j^VtsO . He quotes ^ & in o-a-*» (vol. I., pp. 57-8) who justifies the change of the j by the 
' tendency in Arabic to replace fricative sounds such as the j^ and c in final position by plosive sounds m 
order to mark the ending of a word with a stop and to relieve the tension needed to produce fricatives. 

39. fMjSlp. 37*. . , 

40. ^j**, p. 207, yet ^e-W, P- 191 attributes its origin to Syriac. 

41. ^ p. 179. 

42. ^j-fcp.211. 

43. ,/jjiai,p.381. 

44. ^Wl.p.201. 



34 AL-LI8SAN AL-ARABI 

Job — v>! i 

Peter -► ^Ju 

Yet, some names -when in non-Biblical texts -are transliterated nowadays as i j^Si t Jjj and jiu . 
Conversely the purists like ( j J \i < ?,,.Sl and jSU xU criticized this resolution on the grounds that it will 
only result in the Arabic language being infiltrated by foreign sounds. Further, the public will find it difficult 
to pronounce foreign proper names which consist of foreign (i.e. non-Arabic) sounds 2M like the |v| |tl | and 
. the|g|. 

Conclusion : 

While this study has attempted to classify the corpus of loanwords according to etymology and define 
the criteria for morphophonemic changes, yet many issues remained unresolved and call for more extensive 
analysis. For instance, subsequent studies could tackle the status of Arabic words borrowed or assimilated 
into other languages. A comparison can, therefore, be drawn between types of changes of loanwords in both 
Arabic as well as foreign languages. Further, a more thorough and precise etymological analysis is needed to 
account for anomalies. Finally, comparative lexicographers can compile dictionaries that list loanwords with 
their original SL form and TL assimilated version. 



AL.LISSAN AL-ARABI 



Original Loanform 



*J& ] 



Arabicized from 



SjJJI 



jjUa 



Changes 



A : doubling the j 



S: £}->& 



E : final o 



Some Modified Proper Loanwords in Arabic. 

Nevertheless, when a proper name conforms with canons of Arabic, it is often left unchanged. 

e.g. cJuj> (a village near Baghdad) from Persian o^y. 

^ISJI however, cautions against changing proper names lest the modified form be confused with 
other proper names as in case of 'Bologna' in Italy and 'Boulogne' in France. With respect to common 
pronunciations, the former should be Arabicized (or rather transliterated) Liy* while the latter &j y . . 
Unfortunately, 'poland' is also alternatively Arabicized as \#} y _. An easy way out would be to abandon the 
Arabicized form for 'Poland' and use, instead, the common form currently in usage 1^ . 

While embarking upon proper names, ancient Arab philologists contended with citing examples 
without canonizing any methodology for the preservation or the adaptation of the original pronunciation. 
^UiJl, for instance, states, at one point, that proper names are to be analogially Arabicized, yet he stops 
short from setting for what, if any, analogical methods, were used by the Arabs m . He points out as does *i 
,*- that anomalies abound in Arabicizing foreign proper names 221 . By anomalies, they mean those names 
which are in breach of Arabic analogical patterns. In other words, such names were not subjected to 
modifications as the author of ^*2\ ^ unequivocally states "proper names do not admit any 

changes" 222 . 

The Egyptian Language academy as well as some contemporary linguists like ^jSli and ^l^tfl 
stipulated that foreign proper names should be adopted according to their pronunciations in the source 
Sages (or their Tost commonly used pronunciations) 223 . Their arguments was that most foreigr proper 
nTmes are used worldwide irrespective of a given language Nonetheless, the Academy advanced that 
(Biblical) names which were Arabicized by ancient Arabs are to be preserved without any change . 



Victor 


->>»* 


Paul 


-uJ* 


Jacob 


— * VJ 2 *! 



32 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



J,tf or j^tf (English/French : cable) - ^15 or «,** (by suffixing ^i) or -> j^ (according to the 
pattern Jcl^) 

> (French : metre) _» jLu i (according to the pattern JUil) 

*j (Syiac : yyj) -► ^ (according to the pattern JJUi) 

Ji.ji (French : baril) 215 _ j^ (according to the pattern JJUi) 

jf4 (Syriac : j^j) __ ^j (according to the pattern jJti) 

3- An Arabicized word may be suffixed with l^\ .L, 'relative ^' as in : 

aramrantus (Latin) - j^y,, y^,, 'amaranth- 

ideology (English)/ideologie (French) -> ^^f 'ideological' 
tactique (French) , - ^sfl tactical' 

4- Sometimes a given loanword or its abstracted root serves as the basis for deriving parts of speech Ali 
notes, for exemple, that the abstracted root & from ^15 (Greek : kanon) has yielded 216 : - 

6^ 'legistlate' ^ 'legislator' 

oZ» 'formed in accordance ^15 'lawful' 

with the law' 

bi& 'legistlation' ^ijj 'laws' 

Similarly, the abstracted root ^i the Persian f l£J has yielded 217 > 

^i\ 'to bridle' ^j ' to be bridled' 

M 'bridling' f Gyj 'one makes bridles' 

i*>Ji 'bridles' p»j; 'bridled' 

P*fc-«! 'ask someone to bridle a horse' 
From the French 'doublage' (English : dubbing), Arabic has derived the following:- 

<>Jjj 'dubbing' -bju'dub' 

^'dubbed' £>b,j'dubbing technician/switcher' 

Finally, from the Turkish 'manovara' 2I8 , Arabic has the noun s^U and the verb ^U, to manoeuvre' 
which is a good example of an ill-conceived Arabicized word. The y in s j3 U was mistakenly thought to be 

the nominal f as, for example, in i*L^ 'conformation' from oL, and, accordingly, it was dropped from 

the verb form. 

3. A NOTE ON ARABICIZING PROPER NAMES :- 

4jaJ£l\ remarks that ancient Arabs subjected proper names to the same phonological and 

r^w° 8 r Ca J Ch ^ lges u that ^ often a PP^ to common loanwords. Thus, for example, in the following 
munes we find vanous changes in the forms of segmata. changes (S), addition (A), distal (E)Z ^metathesif 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



contavenes with the requirements of sound harmony in Arabic 210 . Subsequently, the final j in j**tf was 
replaced by J to correspond with the first J (both anterior) while the jl (a back vowel) was replaced by a 
-> (front vowel) to effect ease of articulation by avoiding the sudden shift from front, to back and front again. 

2.11. DERIVATION AND INFLECTION : 

Some Arabicized loanwords (other than proper names) have been morphologically naturalized and in 
effect may undergo a process of derivation in line with Arabic derivational patterns and inflectional affixes. 
1-Some loanwords are treated as common nouns and, therefore, may be prefixed with the definite article Jl 
as the following words which were originally borrowed from Persian . : 
^Jl'silk brocade' j^'or ^jSl 'black dye 

jjjjjJi Tvlev/ Year's day' ±>jM 'sword' 

jo^JjJl 'ginger* u**-Ul 'jasmine' 

f L>JUl 'bridle' yt^ 'baked brick' 

Aside from regular inflection, such words can also be nunnated when they are indefinite, thus Si*-L. 
'!}!> t^J.-.etc. 

Other loan-proper names such as ^l^! t Jj*M <. jU-J tvy-J '>j» 'jdW* 'Ojj 15 and OjV are 
treated on par with definite nouns and, hence, they are neither prefixed with the definite article nor are they 
subject to nunnation. However, <,^ excludes some loan-proper names such as Sj» S^y and *J»y which are 
nunnated owing to their easy pronunciation 212 . 

In similar manner, ^1^1 labels as fully naturalized words which admit the definite article whereas 

those that do not such as ^y and lj ~ i e are deemed foreign . 

2- *tj^ cites examples of loanwords which have been pluralized according to +S* <*• 'broken plural' i.e. 

the irregular plural form plus an optional finals : 

e -g- ^'slipper' ~~* £J'r or **j'^ 

-J^oroW^ 'scepter 1 ~* ~**Hy» 

^J 'store' "* gfl^or^wb* 

oUy, 'name of a city' ~* "^^ 

Vj> *'sock' "* ^M or *M 

Aside from the irregular plural patterns J*ly and >UU as exemplified by the above plural forms 
(plus the optional final L ), loanvords may assume other patterns which may assume some intervocalic 
changes as in : - 



30 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 





3J ~,£ (Syriac) from j^-J* 
(Persian) 


i5j_^ ' khosrau' 


J* 


Coulisses (French) 


y-LjJljS ' behind the scenes' 


Pluralization according to the 
irregular pattern of JJUi 


Doublage (French) 


=W*J 


iUi. 


Gargso (Greek) or cti^ 
(Persian) 


Q*3rj3~' clay used for sealing or 
stamping' 


JW 


Hairesis (Greek) 


lit j* 'heresy' 


*lLi 


Patrikios (Greek) 


&Jx> ' penuin* 


J*i^ 


Philosophos (Greek) 


:ii .u 


<JLi 


Sindhon (Greek) 


^ai- 'silk brocade' 


JW 


Scala (Italian) 


*i\jL, 'scaffold' 


II Ui 



The process of remodelling loanwords in order to conform with Arabic word paradigms may involove 
vast changes in the structure of the loanword including segmental and vowel changes, metathesis, addition, 
elision and modification of stree-patterns. For example, the word *Lj (Italian : freno) was subjected to 
major changes : 

1- Vowel addition : a I*sj |a| was inserted after the .J 

2- Vowel elision : the 'e' after the V in the original word was deleted. 

3- Vowel change : the final 'o' in 'freno' was replaced by *>Ji |a|. 

4- Syllable addition : 3 was suffixed to the word. 

5- Segmental addition : a final i. was added to the word iLj (verb form) to produce the 
instumental noun ILji. 

It should be pointed out that the first four changes were undertaken in order to remodel the word in 
accordance with the Arabic quadriliteral paradigm JJUi . ^^i remarks that though this particular word could 

have been Arabicized as !«/ or <*^i the loanword form of *Lj escapes the confusion that may result from 

the semantic association of *Ajy with &j 'oven' and of i*jj$ with .j» 'mincing'. He quotes the example of 

the unfortunate coinage of the word jU*- for 'tram' which is similar in pronunciation to jb*>- 'gymnastic' 209 , 

a thing which may justifi the unpopularity of the word jU>- in comparison with its Arabicized loanword »lj3 . 

Remodelling may tresspass to loanwords whose original pronunciations have correspondent 
paradigms in Arabic. The Persian word p^*iS Madle' could have been arabicized as such in analogy with the 
word oU_u_'sesban', yet, the Arabic form of this word is JiLiii . Such changes are warranted on account of 
the fact that the Arabs may change a paradigm or ferfeit another if the sound sequence of the original 



AL-LI8SAN AL-ARABI 



counterparts by replacing, adding or deleting a segment or changing the vowels... or they may well leave the 
segment intact..." ° 5 

Accordingly, e; JJL) lSJl remarks that Arabicized loanwords as viewed by * iiii ^ and ^ll^JI can be 

classified into three categories : . 

1- Those loanwords which were subjected to segmental alterations and were analogicaly modified to tit 
into Arabic word patterns. 

e.g. f*j j (Latin 'drachma') analogical with ^»* 'naive' 
jLo (Latin 'denarius') analogical with ^j 'toilet' 

2- Those loanwords which were subjected to segmental alterations but, nonetheless, were not modified 
analogically. 

e.g. jijs t >>T i.jiyt (see the quotation by -ujw-.) 

3- Those loanwords which were neither subjected to segmental alterations nor modified analogically, 
e.g. oUj> t^and ^1.*!. 

Yet there is no mention by either philologists of the criteria for deciding whether a word is to 
undergo analogical modifications or else to be preserved intact according to its origin in the source language. 

Other philologists such as ^yti\ (d. 1005 A. D.) in ^ and t$M >i\ (d. 1 122 A.D.) stressed that 
in order to preserve the purity of the language, borrowings should be made concordant with the phonological 
and morphological patterns of Arabic. Indeed, ^>>Jt defines v >» *•» ^k^! as that which the Arabs 
pronounce in concordance with their patterns 207 . otherwise, loanwords will always remain ^**l 'foreign'. 

In like manner, j^i in a treatise on solecism cites a number of borrowings which contravene 
with the Arabic patterns 208 . 



Non-analogical 


Analogical 


Native Word As a Mould 


loanform 


Pattern 


Correct 
Loanform 


Pattern 


For Analogical Pattern 


ujU 


Jili 


033^ 


Jysli 


3J> 


jr-° 


Jy3 


jyJi 


Jj*9 


JjL$J 'jester' or 'buffon' 


v'v* 


J->Ui 


-1^ 


J^U? 


JLj- 'garment' 


gjjti 




C^ 




J*jj* 'stout camel' 


JJ»jJ 


J*«-» 


J*k* 


6M 


jjjlj, 'stout' 



Generally speaking, loanwords or their derivatives, may undergo alternations aimed at making them 
correspond with existing Arabic patterns. 



SL Loanform 



j£ >lU-. ( persian) 



o^-. (persian) 
yj (Syriac) 



Arabicized Form 



j^ 'lumps of dry clay* 



., 'callous, tough' 
^iSs 'acre' 



Corresponding Pattern 



J*4 



J* 1 ** 



$ 

If ARAB LEAGUE EDUCATION CULTURE AND 

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£ (ALECSO) 

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AL-LISSAN 
AL-ARABI 

r — ~~ — ■ 

l^-/.)«/ yr-'jU 



N°50 

2000 



d-H-*' 21*1* ^ W -IV 



1) Morphophonemics of Loan- words in translation 

Dr.Jamal B.S.AI -Qinai 3 

2) The nature of arabic sonorant consonants 

Duleim Masoud Al-Qahtani 40 

3) Cross cultural link in translation 

Hassan Gazala 51 

4) Les lacunes de la « definition » dans le dictionnaire arabe 
Nadia Ben Elazmia 57 




Morphophonemics of Loan- words in Translation 



Abstract 



Dr.Jamal B.S.A1 -Qinai^ 



tST ral . by_pr °f Ct 0f tr » nsl ^ion is the adoption of technical, scientific and culture-specific terms for 
I^hL A y ; C T V f nt f "! 6ither UnaVaUable ° r Un P°P ular ' The infilt ^ion of loan-wor™ into 
iSStedn e C A S ra h- hT" ° f th T fl f ibiHty ° f ArablC ™n*ology.Yet, the methods of analy Ig 
assimUated .. e. Arab.c.zed) loan-words often assumed an impressionistic arbitrary nature.The current study 
attempt to linguistically diagnose and provide a typology for classifying any systematic phonologica and 
morphological changes while also accounting for anomalies. The study adopts a comparative 

X"Z r Z^ L forms in view of lexical etymo,ogy and the method ^ «!*** 



«A pure language is a poor language » 

INTRODUCTION: 

A natural by-product of translation is the adoption of technical, scientific and culture-specific 
terms for which ready-made equivalents are either unavailable or unpopular. The process whereby a 
particular language incorporates in its vocabulary words from another language is technically designated I by 
such terms as «borrowing», «loaning» or «adoption», though the latter is usually the case 1 

The study analyses a corpus of loanwords in Arabic with the aim of investigating the phonological 
and morphological adaptations that are applied to the incoming lexical items .The term «adaptation» as 
Holden exp ains, refers to the process in the recipient language of alterning the phonological (and at times 
the morphological) make-up of the loanword 2 .«Adoption», on the other hand, is a term that describes the 
assimilation into the recipient language of loanword while perserving their original form and pronunciation 
as per the donor language . In Arabic, some loanwords are fully-naturalized and thus become the roots for 
iurtner derivations. Others, however, remain foreign or partially translated. 

l.THE CONCEPT OF 'ARABICIZATION' AND THE STATUS OF LOANWORDS : 

Arabicization is a process whereby foreign words are incorporated into the language usually with 
phonological or morphological modifications so as to be congruent with the Arabic phonological and 
morphological paradigms, hence the term«analogical Arabicization».Yet, whereas Sibawayh (author of al- 
m® aid al-Jawahqi (author of al-Mu'arrab) recognize all foreign vocabulary used by the Arabs howeve7 
distant from Arabic moulds some of it might be, al-Harm and al- Zamakhshan advocated that loanwords 
which violate Arafoc patterns degenerate the language 4 . Al-Harm, for example, includes in his treatise on 

SOleciSm a number of hnrrnwin»<; ivhiVh 9n> in km<,/,k ~p a_„l: ^ 5 



Non-analogical 


Analogical 


Native word as a mould 


Loanform 


pattern 


Loanword 


pattern 


o> 


Jil» 


Ojjl* 


Jy=li 


^ 


^ J 


Jj*j 


jy~* J 


J^i 


Jy^'Jester' 


v ij> 


JiUi 


vijj- 


^ 


JLj-'garment' 



The definition of Arabicization ^i, has always been a matter of controversy among Arab 
philologists particular with r egard to the status of the borrowed word and the parameters that apply in the 

'Department of English Language and Literature 
Faculty of Arts - Kuwait University 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



naturalization process of foreign vocabulary. 

To begin with, ancient philologists used a multitude of different labels to refer to foreign vocabulary 
in Arabic. Al hamzaoui ^l>»Jl cites the word ^i as used by Ibn Abbas ^L* *i in his book Gharibal 
qoran ,-JjUl ^A Abou abayda i^ *iin .-.Toll -,Um and Assoyyouti ^l in Al Itqan fi olum al qoran 
...Taj, r ^ ,j ,-,urti . Similarly, the label Vj *f l« was used by Sibawayh oj*- in Al kitab ^b£)l, Al jawaliki 
jull^iin Al Moarrab mina lkalam alajnabi ^11 p ^ll t> u^j and Ibn Jinni ^ *l in Al khassaiss 
„Lu>Ji. The latter two also used the terms Addakhil J^dl and Al aajami ^«fl. In fact, the word 
Addakhil J^Jl was used by Al khafaji ^UiJl in the title of his book Chifad al ghalil fima fil arabia min 
dakhil ( ^. j ,.„ ^ gji , j Ljj , UU1» »Ua .One may also read such words as Al moarrab Syd\ or attaarib v^ 1 in 
Assihah c l~Jl by Al Jawhari ^^1 and both in Al mozhir ^ and Al mohaddab fima waqaa filqoran 
m ; na in.n^h - ,_,.!« ■•„ ,.ToJl ,j gS. U* ^1 by Assoyouti ^i. Finally,Al khalil bno ahmed * J^JI 
^iin Al ayn ^ employs various labels such as Al mobtadaa ^ , al moyallad J^ll and Addakhil J*i-»JI. 
Despite the use of different names in labeling loanwords, there was one common ground in 
classifying foreign vocabulary in Arabic under two categories :Moarrabat ob> and Moalladat ~U r . 
Roughly speaking, ^^ "Arabicized or fully-assimilated loanwords are those words which were adopted 
before the middle of the second century A.H. or what is commonly known as 'Asr al ihtijaj ^l^i ^ 'the 
authoritative age 1 , while *A* y 'neologisms' is used to designate words that were borrowed thereafter. 

Assouyouti ^-11 defines Almoallad^i as any word which was introduced by the non-indigenous 
who were not an authoritative source on language particularly after the second century A.H. 7 
However,Mohamed al amine al mohibbi ^. &H\ — considers as moalladat *M r all words that were 
changed by the populace in their original sounds or vowels (irrespective of any given date) 8 . Finally,the 
contemporary ^ ^ttl. *. designates as ^ any word that was unknown to Arab philologists .Within 
this frameworMhe definition ofolJ r is left wide open to encompass both words that were borrowed after 
^1 ^ «the authoritative age» until now, and any other native words that were subjected to changes in 
pronunciation or otherwise. 

In .UU1UIU , ^ttfcll cites asoUlj. some common words that have a high frequency of usage. For 
examples «poetry session*,^ «disturbance»,^. «dexterity», VU «essence»,<^ «abstract», 
i^ «newspaper» and ail* «card » are o, J r either by way of being borrowed from languages or for 
having no « classical, origin (i. e. no previous authoritative citation by the eloquent speakers of Arabic 10 ). 
Recently, the Egyptian language Academy set down its own definition of JjU. To quote, *js is a 
word used by >^« the non-indigenous» in a way contrary to that of the Arabs/Those words which fall in 
lino with the canons of Arabic are deemed acceptable, whereas those corrupted or ^mprovised words which 
nf inge them are not sanctioned by the Academy to be used in pure (, e. classical) Arabic » 

With regard to methodology, Eid propounds that Arab.czation is, by and large, sanct.oned by 



AL-LIS3AN AL-ARABI 



common usage and does not follow any rigid analogical rules. While early philologists were busy at work in 
their attempt to lay the canons for the process of Arabicizations by describing the already-assimilated words 
their ultimate goal was to formulate rules that were in line with Arabic morphological patterns Such rules 
were, however, vulnerable to exceptions ,2 .This could be accounted for by the fact that their data was in itself 
inconsistent and marred with anomalies.They were simply applying rules of Classical Arabic morphology on 
foreign lexical items that have their own rules in their source language(s). Important in this context is Yowell 
Aziz's view on the application of ancient methods of transliteration : 

« ... the ancient Amble writer was not always consistent in his (transliteration) methods. 
Some of the ancient practices are no longer suitable... 13 » 

In a nutshell, those who undertook the task of translating foreign books into Arabic or those who 
came into contact with speakers of other languages had no preset rules for Arabicizing foreign words.The 
transliterated form of a given loanword was, thus, in concordance with their best knowledge of its 
pronunciation . At times, they were not adequately fluent in the source language, and, therefore the 
transliteration form of a given loanword may be the end product of a mispronunciation rather than any real 
phonological or morphological modifications. 

2. Types of Phonological and Morphological Changes in Loanwords : 

This section purports to examine any systematic segmental or suprasegmental alterations in 
loanwords.The aim is to determine whether such changes are rule-governed in view of the canons of Arabic 
phonology and morphology. Changes may range from assimilation, dissimilation, metathesis, elision to 
doubling or replacing one or more segments of the original. In his book al-Kitab. Sibawayh remarks that(the 
Arabs), 

« ....Often change the condition or a word from what it was in the foreign language by 
assimilating to Arabic those letters which are not Arabic and replacing a letter though it occurs in 
Arabic by another one. Furthermore, they change the vocalization and position of augmentative 
letters without attaining the Arabic word structure for, after all , it is a word of foreign origin whose 
power to attain the Arabic word structure is in their view not sufficient. Frequently, they shorten as 
in the « nisbah » construction or add whereby they either attain the Arabic structure or not, as in the 
case of j^l^jil f^!jj\ Jj_cU-l Jjyij— ^^J and jU^S. Often they leave a noun unchanged when its 
letters are like theirs, be its structure Arabic or not as in the case of ^U^ fJ > and fSjS 15 » 

Al -Karuri ^KJl, on the other hand, ascribes all changes that take place in loanwords to one 
governing criterion. He defines this as the tendency by the Arabs to attain sound harmony 16 . 

2.1. Sounds which exist in both the loanform and Arabic but which are yet replaced by 
similar sounds of the same natural class 17 : 

Sibawayh hints at such segmental changes in his book ^,b&H : 

a „5-..i- < ri° ft ? n * hey u chan 8 e the combination of a word from what it was in the foreign language, by 
assimilating to Arabic letters such as are not Arabic, and replacing a letter, even though it be like 
Arabic, by another one » But, « they may have a noun unchanged when its letters are like theirs 19 ». 

He, further, describes some irregular changes of loanword sounds that have Arabic counterparts. For 
instance, he cites the word J^ (from Persian J,jl^i ) in which the J, was replaced by a ^ , the proper 
name J^U-| (from Hebrew/ Syriac JyUsi) 20 wherein the J> was turned into ^ and a ^was substituted for 
the j and the Persian jA^S « a ladle » which was Arabicized as JAxi by replacing the _S"-> 3 , the £ (or 



6 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



rather ^ by a ^ and the final j - J (by regressive assimilation under influence of the original J). 

Al-Khaf5ji ^U*Ji remarks that irregular changes of loanword sounds that have indigenous 
counterparts are confined to the 3 ^ c J and the J 22 . Yet, ^.^ cites instances of similar cases. For 
examples, he traces the origin of cjdi to the Presian *y (i. e .* -0)^' to Persian ^(i-e.^) 
^ 4 « dill » to Persian ^ (i. eJ-»*) and *UJ. « frying pan » to Persian 4* (i. e . o- J.f .Indeed, 
these sounds along with those mentioned by both «<*- and ^UfcM constitute but few members of a larger 
ar n ,, n For instance in the course of our study we came across some frequent changes of foreign segments 
S^S^S^^ by dint'of having corresponding Arabic equivalents. Some of these 
segments/ sounds include the following: 
A.CONSONANTS : 

l.Hamza 

In Persian a ly is often replaced by other segments : 

_> c : s*! -* 4M 'bustard' 

^ . o ..; _► ojjj^ 'glue'O- e. replaced by its velarized counterpart). 

. __>: ■ .J -»■ *u w « mouthpiece of a narghile » 

fc . w j -+ .ij^'attireXAlso Latin endivia-»*ba^ 'endive') 

j_> . ji . _► ^b^ 'literally : gold-water(also used as a bird's name) 
Similarly, the 5>» (or its equivalent) is velarized in loanwords from other languages 24 . 

l-» £ akhathis(Greek) -+J^ 'carnelian' 

somaet (Ethiopic) -+l*,yo 'silo' 

2. o 



_lj3 (persian) pheasant 
db^persian) 
Stabulum (Latin) 

Augustus(Latin) 






: &y (persian) 
thiryakos(Greek) 

kantharitis(Greek) 



-^ i ^j J ^J- 'vintage wine' 



_tf(persian) 



— ► jyiS 'treasure 



AL-LI8SAN AL-ARABI 



g-u-: 


£l^».(persian) 


— ^ 'lamp. Light' (via Aramaic Ul^a) 28 


r*«» 


: jiL»Jtf (persian) 


-» JiUii 'a ladle' 


j:-^ 


: £ (persian) 


-*■ y*> 29 'plaster' 


g-«J : 


^.Ij (persian) 


— ► ,5»lj'a decoy' 


~-rjS (persian) 
5.* 


— ► J-jS 




Itjj- (persian) 


—* tbj*.'chameleon' 


Tc 


enchelis (Greek) 


-» o-JSii'eel' 


t -j 


mastikhia (Greek) 


— (^Ika/mastic' 


t --» 


dhrakhmi (Greek) 


-pV 


6.o- 








: SjjJL (persian) 


-g^ 




odor (Syriac) 


— > jijT 30 


j— ► j: 


zindan (Turkish) 


-a w « 


j ->i» 


djj .-jj (persian) 


— ► j^jut'a mandolin- like instrument' 


j-»u* 


moda (Italian) 


— ► *-ff^»'fashion, vogue' 




djj(persian) 


-> d«'osterity, hardship' 


7.j — a 


: j^3 (persian) 


— » .,-,,,* 32 


j-,: 


j** (persian) 


->^* 


8-, 






j~* J : 


jljj-, (persian) 


— * jlj^'pavilion' 


j-»J: 


ja ojJ5 (persian) 


~* J^-^ ( or Ji*-»i5)'huge' 


J~*f : 


barril (Spanish) 


- J*V (i.e.2-|r| — IpJ 33 


9 


jl^j (persian) 


-> o'i*j'ambler'(horse) 


J- E # 


jj (persian) 


— J^Lv 'a little bell' 34 


j~ * o* '■ 


»j|jiji (persian) 


_ > - . 35 



telezma (Greek) 



t (talisma) 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



j-»u-: 


polizza(Italian) 


- , 36 


3- A: 


boza (Turkish) 


— ► 4Ji# 'ice-cream' 37 


j^t : 


3b (persian) 


-► iL 'span of the outstretched arms (a measure) 38 


j-+ 3: 


3^ T (Persian) 


-" Aoi! ' a pitcher or a jug' 


j-J: 


3*1** 


->JfiAS 'a ladle' 


(persian) 

10. y- 







y. -► o ijSjij- (persian) 
u* -* £ : °>J- (Persian) 
y.-^^: sahro (Aramaic) 
y- -» tH» :stabulum (Latin) 
mastikhia (Greek) 

y, -+ Jb : oi>o~. (persian) 
11. yi 
yi -> ^ :gadich (Hebrew) 
yj -♦ £ :yi^ (Hebrew) 



— ► Jyji 'despicable' 

-> j^j^ 'a slipper or its cover.' 

.40 

— ► Jjk^l (could be via Aramaic 'establa') 

— » KU„. 

—* u-jo^ f ez ' 4 ' 'turban, 



-»■ _>> 43 'thicket or woodland' 



j, -»• y- :qachicho (Syriac) 


— * y-j-i 44 'priest ; and ^y 
(Hebrew)— ^ r * s 'Moses' 


^ -» o* :&•* (persian) 


— pi- 46 'idol' 


12. t 
e-+ 4 :toouto (Syria) 


— ►oj*U> 47 'idol or seducer' 


13. t 
£-> ^ : u l^ji (persian) 
£-> 3 :£jj (persian) 
^13 (persian) 


. i 48 
-» jjj 49 'butter- milk' 
-► 4J83 50 'a bird's name' 


14. J 




^i -► v :fteghma (Greek) 


-»• pib 51 'phlegm' 


,_» -+ *±, :foum (Hebrew) 




15. J 
j -> £ :sac (Turkish) 
ankura (Greek) 


— ,L» 53 'bread tin' 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



J — * f. cartouche(French) 
carciofo (Italian) 
oktopous(Greek) 

J — » j :dhorakinon(Greek) 
kaftan (Turkish) 

16. J : there are no consistent cases of 
J — ► ly* :j£jJ (Persian) 

J -> £ :£M (Persian) 
J — ► o '-y^> (Syriac) 

17. r 

.— ► (j :pamodora (Italian) 
tembel (Turkish) 
rosatum (Greek) 

18. 
— ► v :cj\jZ (Persian) 



—> <s> :sindhon (Greek) 
u -» (i : ^j^ (Persian) 
— »• i : jl^l* (Persian) 
19. _> 
_» — ► ^ :4jUl« (Persian) 
rhetine (Greek) 

_» -» j. : olj* (Persian) 
_» — ► * :haimat (Ethiopic) 
hosaf (Turkish) 

_» — » j :5JL»j (Persian) 
_» — * j :*j^j (Persian) 



— ► j*oi 4 anchor' 
— > yi^bji-'cartridge' 
— ► Jij^ji-'artichoke' 

— ► i^iki.i'0Ct0pUS' 

— ► jljj M4 peach' 
— » oliuS'caftan' 
J segmental changes : 
— ► j^ii 55 'anchor' 
— ► j£L-« 56 'anny or constabulary' 
-> ^"'idol' 

— * Sjjjiij' tomato' 
-> JjS'idle' 
— » ^L.j'wine mixed with honey' 

— » o^ 59 'tight short pants'-* (the Persian , 



influence of the l_> , then the r was assimilated into the 
in a geminate form). 



e r 



— ► y-iu- *° 'silk brocade' 
— > ^j^. 61 'pharmacist' 
— » jb*»- 'gymnastic'(alternative pronouced jLi* ) 

— ► ~»**j'violet' 

-+ rjjpij 'resin( here the final sound [a] 

was treated on par with a [_»]) 

■— » 6l>> 62 'Carrhae: ancient Mesopotamian town' 

— ► oui. 63 'tent' 

— *■ tiLiii. 'compote or raisin juice' 

— > jj!»j 'foyer or corridor' 

— * <Sjjj 'melting pot' 



10 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



j-»J :3^i (Persian) -► J> 'meteor' 

A NOTE ON FINAL I -» I IN PERSIAN LOANWORDS: 

Sibawayh o>u— . remarks that Persian speakers replace final l_»l by either a 5)-** or a j in fast 
speech.Thus, the Arabs replace final Persian ,j which contravenes with Arabic morphological restrictions on 
final segments by its nearest equivalent(s), viz the j. or alternatively the J or the j. 64 In other words, final 
Persian _* which is repalced in Arabicized loanwords by a ly* or a ^ or a ^ or a j. or a j or a 3 or a £ (see 
obove under 1 8- -») is originally a j and not a _». 

Al-Karuri jjjjl^l , however, traces the origin of the final Persian |_» I to Middle (Pahlavi) Persian in 
which the final |_*| was pronounced a J 65 ( which could , in turn, be a Persian "-S | g| ; the change is , 
therefore, phonologically warranted).Further, he notes that the final-* was at times replaced by a ^ or a j in 
order to show inflectional endings. In some cases, it was mistaken for feminine 5 — /5 in Arabic and at times 
was replaced by a 3_ /s as in Cj 3j (Persian)-><;jjj ' a hatch' 66 . 

Ali attributes such changes of foreign sounds that have native Arabic counterparts to«the tendency 
of Arabic sounds to combine in certain sequences rather than in others» 67 .With regard to the velarization of 
sounds like to ,j i^ t J and the hamza by replacing them with their emphatic counterparts viz t<> ;,>> 1 j 
h and ? respectively, he oberves that «early Arabs were keen to preserve the character of Arabic. Emphatic 
sounds, being among the salient features of Arabic must thus here been to be more capable of embodying 
this distinction rather than the non-emphatic which are common to most languages » 68 . In other words , 
whether the Arabs consciously or inconsciously velarized the iy.m t j and the J , their aim was to exploit 
the phonological potentialities of the language in order to give loadwords an Arabic characteristic . 
B.VOWELS : 

The earliest reference made with regard to the change of vocalization while Arabicizing loanwords is 
to be found in the book of 4,^*- : 

«Further, they change the vocalization as in j^ and v >-^ which are rendered as ^ " falsehood " 
and v >i! "mixture" 70 ». 
B.l. Short vowels: 

Here, we will use Arabic approximants to represent foreign vowels for reasons of uniformity. 
1. 'ozi lal (or its near equivalent) 
1. oJ»|al-»wilt U:|: 

bus (English)—* o^->. (instead of possible form ^ ) 
1.2. o*|a|-i-i|u|: 

khabast (Ethiopic) -> ji* (bread) 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



gumrak(Turkish) 

j^j (Persian) 

13. oJilal -Shrill 

tabac(French or Spanish) -► jLL 'tobacco' 

cambiale(Italian) -^1*4 'bill of exchange' 

galbab(Ethiopic) — ► vM* 'gown' 

fasah (Hebrew) — »--oi 

2. i^» I U I (OR ITS NEAR-EQUIVALENT) : 
2.1 IaJ» I u I ->i>jj lal: 

gaborouto( Syriac)— » ^j^i- 'omnipotence' 74 



—*-tij*>- 'customs' 

-> jfi-,'j 'constitution'(under influence of the following ' 3 ) 



gue hinnom(Hebrew) 

pomodora (Italian) 

C^Js (Persian) 
2.2 i*i|u| -^5^ III: 

ovrizon ( Greek) 

j^Ij (Persian) 

mushka (Sanskrit) 77 
2-J.i^lul.J \j :|: 

neon (English) 

^-.(Persian) 
2.4 i**|u|->„, |i:|: 

manganon ( Greek) 79 
3.»_rS 1 1 1 (OR ITS NEAR - EQUIVALENT) : 

3.1.s^|l|^a«*|A:l: 
ethir ( Greek) 
enchelis ( Greek) 
imperator( Latin) 
Jjj (Persian) 



-^^ 'Hell' 75 
— + ^j)-^ ' tomato ' 
— ► £.iSjS' rhinoceros' 



-» 3c*! ' P^e gold' 76 
— *jjL 'crystall' 
— >d-« 'musk' 

— *-o>u instead of &u 
— »j^jo_ or jjjm-. barge 

— ► jil*i* 'mangonel' 



-►jjJI 'ether' 
— ► y^Jiii 'eel' 
— ► jjtlji*i ' emperor' 
— >J^j 'monitor lizard ' 



12 AL-LI3SAN AL-ARABI 



> 4i «'> 
— ► -J tower 

->,^lt 'frying pan' 
. ,83 



3J.ij-f lll-»i**lul: 

istoria (Greek) -+ SjjkJ 'fable' 

pirghos(Greek) 
3.3. ij-tf III-* Jtfi U:l: 
tighnon(Greek) 

chech(Hebrew) -»,>14 'muslin' 

3.4.ij-*lll -»j b :l: 

kazik (Turkish) — J&l^ 'pole or dirty trick' 

3.5. 8j-s|l|-» -» I i:l: ■ 
Varnish (English) -> L) i i i jj 
candela(Greek) 85 -» JjjJS 'lantern' 

archipelaghos (Greek) -"Ja^-jl 'archipelago' 8 (Also notice the 'i' I-»U3i |a| ) 
B.2 Long Vowels : 
l.tjjl I al : - (or its near equivalent): 
1.1. Jdi|a:|-M>o» lal : 

-* i**** 87 'violin' 

— >&)■& 88 'kohl container' 



i*JU£(Persian) 
jbli5(Persian) 

1.2. Julia :|- £ : 
maccarone (Italian) 
Jl5(Persian) 
oU(Persian) 

1.3. will la :| -s^li:!: 
trabzan (Turkish) 

1.4. aJllarl -*jlyl : 
0»jjLS (Persian) 

2.il=>:l: 

2.1. j I j :l-»i*5» lal: 
opion(Greek) 
jLS ^(Persian) 



-*^aS 'cake or pretzel' 
— ►elio 'mint' 



89 'railing or banisters' 



-».M.J» 



,1^ 90 'caravan' 



^0>3**' 91 'opium' 
-+_^i* 'dagger' 



AL-LI88AN AL-ARABI 



2.2.j I z> : I ->i*o> + j i.e. the diphthong |aw| : 

4Hju(Persian) -^'"splendour of beauty 

2J.j b:| i-^jA la: I: 

odor (Syriac) -►jij? "'March' 

noqoucho(Syriac) -^jili 94 'bell' 

jL^Persian) -^^(Syriac) -^.j^i 95 

dhimocion(Greek) -►u-Ujj^'dungeon' 
2.4.j I => : I -+iui lul : 

Jjfijj(Persian) — ►Ji^ 97 'cooked, parched and crushed wheat' 

jli-j^Persian) -+ jU_j 98 'the village and its vicinity' 



2.5.jb : I -»-*lil 

Kopru(Turkish) 

burgu(Turkish) 
3, ^ | i : I (or its pear - equivalent) 



->S?jO* 'bridge' 
-+^j> 10o 'screw' 



3.i„rflhl-4*tf lal 

ob.xo(Persian) 



piselli (Turkish) 

3-2.-*li:l ^i»j> |u |: 

pondika(Greek) _> J^ ""'hazelnut' 

3,3.-f li:l ->»^-s|i| : 

6 U^(Persian) -*olo* 103 ' scabbard' 

3.4,*li:l -*uJi U:l: 

zorifo(Syriac) — ►iiljj 104 ' a giraffe' 

3.5.^|i:| -j |u:|: 

hairetikos(Greek) — ► t5 t-ji J * 'heretic' 



^Ljljj 'sentry, guard' (under influence of the 

following 3 and ^iJi) 
iLo or Ju> 101 (with a short final «JUt)'peas' 



14 AL-LIS3AN A L- ARAB I 



2.2. SOUNDS THAT DO NOT CONSTITUTE PART OF THE ARABIC PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM: 

Such sounds are often replaced by their nearest homorganic equivalents .^^- notes that : 

«... the Arabs assimilate (foreign) letters to Arabic letters... Thus, Persian Igl is changed 
into either a ^oraj or a 4 as in >»>or^ or &jS respectively. Similarly, they replace the I pi 
by a ^i in jijj or a v as in ^... Frequently, they change a letter which does not exist in Arabic, 
without changing the original structure of the word as in *j , jii , yj and 3^ - 
In like manner , ^1^1 remarks that the Arabs : 

« often change loanwords... by substituting foreign phonemes by their nearest homorganic 
Arabic equivalents. At times, they may even replace foreign phonemes by heterogeneous(i. e. 
heterorganic) substitutes. It is imperative to accommodate such changes lest Arabic should be 
infiltrated by "foreign" phonemes 106 . 

He, further, quotes jj-***)! on the subject and comments on the latter' s use of the word JaJio' 'interfere 

with' in the sentence "L+otf 0-* o-*J U±i±*lW -o-*^" which im P lies that the Arabs ' interfere with the 
pronunciation of foreign phonemes and alter the structure of loanwords to conform with the canonical 
patterns of Arabic. To achieve this they modify loanwords by adding, replacing or eliding a segment or a 
short vowel(i. e. a. diacritical)' 107 . 

In ^y f ^^ji classifies Arabic phonemic substitutes for foreign sounds into two categories : 

1- Phonemes which regulary replace foreign sounds : these include the d ^<. jt v and the ^i. Such 
phonemes often replace sounds that have no Arabic equivalents. 

2- Phonems which are used to substitute foreign sounds on irregular basis : these include the < J 
^ijSc* and the 3, 108 though, as was discussed earlier under 2.1 some of these phonemes may 
replace sounds that have identical arabic equivalents. 

Nevertheless, it seems that philologists of late erroneously confined segmental changes to the above said 
phonemes, despite the fact that 4y«- and ^1^1 were merely citing examples rather than providing an 
exhautive account of the subject.Besides, ^1^1 was primarily interested in Persian loanwords in Arabic 
and hence, his comments and notes were directed towards the corpus of loanwords that was at his 
disposal.Indeed, nowadays the subject of foreign sound substitution has become more diverse with the 
increase in volume of loanwords and the number of source languages. In the following we will present some 
examples of substituting phonemes which are lacking in the phonological system of Arabic. 

A. FOREIGN CONSONANTS : 

! * |Pl : This segment constitutes an accidental gap in Arabic phonology and orthography though, as will be 
discussed below, a devoiced version of the Ibl (i.e. lb. I) is present in certain consonantal clusters . 

M.|p|-*lb| : 

porphura(Greek) ~^j^ji 'pi»P le ' 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



Aprilis(Latin) 


-Jo*i 


Operette(French) 


-•^i 


Amper(English) 


->J*«i 


j»jl^ (Persian) 


-^la* 


LlPl- J Ifl : 




Spongos (Greek) 


-+&-1 


piscina(Latin) 


-+<ji_j 'fountain' 


j^(Persian) 


-►j^y'steel' 



In certain cases a I P I can be replaced by both a v and a ti in two versions of the same loanword. 



j_i>j (Persian) 



— c 



both meaning ' as word' 



Notice the homorganic feature (labial) in both the original sound and its replacements. 

2.|v|: 

2-1. 1 v I — v I b I (mainly in old loanwords) : 

ovrizon (Greek) — ►jj^J ' pure gold' 

evenos(Greek) -» u -j«i , ebony' m 

2.2. |v|- c ldi| : 

Anchova (Spanish) — ►Lj.^Aji'" 2 anchovis' 

23. |v|-> j|f I: 

Vergilius(Roman poet ; a Latin name) 

Archives (French) — ►,. 

Virus (English) 
2.4. |v|->j|w| : 

Varnish (English) 

Pehlivan (Turhish) 
3. It J I: 
3.1. |tj|-» e ldi| : 

V 1 ^ (Persian) 



-\lrt->s» « Virgil » 



(jiojjj ( c.f. the French 'vernis') 
-►O^* ll3 'clown' 



16 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



da* (Persian) -+ o^- a iuic 

3.2. ItJI ->^ Ul : 

^U (Persian) -»jLa' tea' 

canta (Turkish) ^ SJ^ " 4 'bag' 

inch (English) "^l 

3.3.UJI-^|S|: 

^XPersian) ^6~> " ' zinc ' 

^ (Persian) -***•* ' contract ' document, cheque' 

Certain loanwords may have alternative spellings as in : 

j^. A** <■&** "%* 
o^(Persian) ^ all meaning ' a rolling pin 

The 1 1 II may also be rendered as jz as in : 

Sandwich (English) -+jz>)^ 

4. Igl : 

4.1. Igl-» £ ldzl : 

Tighnon (Greek) -M-U- ""'frying pan' 

monologue(English/ French) -^<^yy 

garcon (French) -+byyt waiter ' 

gumruk(Turkish) -*d>*'customs' 

4.2. Igl^lghl: 

Gardiro (Syriac) - ^'"'stream, creek' 

Augustus (Latin) -►a- 1 *-** 1 

Pythagoras (Greek) -^j}*!*** 

dogma(Turkish) ->"***> 'stamp, hallmark' 

gas(English/ French) ^j u 
4J.lgl-^lk|-: 

Sagrougo(Syriac) -»"4>- U8 ' bow1 ' P latter ' 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



Magoung (Armenian) -> djk« ' 19 ' Shuttle; also a weight measure' 

garage(English/ French) ->?}jS 

In some casesn, a loanword may have alternative forms as in : 

^(Persian) J both meaning 'compasses (geometry) 

Also notice that the |g| in sagrougo -* 4^jL, was replaced by both a J and a £ within the same word. 
4.4. Igl-jlql: 

... , both meaning 'store,tavern' 

Groschen (German) — *jij 'piaster' 

^^-Jl claims that the Arabs used a sound similar to the I g I but was abandoned later 120 . Consequently, the r 
in yfl^. (Persian : ^£ ) used to be pronounced I g! , for examples, in the dialect of jl^cJl as a I gl 121 ; hence, 
the change of the ^->^ instead of ad or a£ . 



5.1/1: 




5.1.1/l-gld 1: 




Montage (French) 


-*£*y 


regime(French) 


^^j 


5-2-l/l-jl/l: 




jS(Persian) 


—> j5 'rai 


•^(Persian) 


-> *Sj' 



■ JjJj mercury 

Notice that both original sound and its Arabic equivalent are continuant, coronal, sibilant fricatives. 
A note on Marginal Consonantal Phonemes: 

In assimilating foreing sounds, reference is sometimes made to 'marginal phonems' i.,e. classes of 
sound found only in loanwords such as the I v| in the pronunciation of y mAi j 'video' and c**^ 'vitamin', 
the |g| m y-jjUjS 'congress' and the | C I in jiS,\ 'inch' orjJjLi (alternatively written jijuu ) 'Charles'.But 
there is no good reason to treat these sounds as phonemes, whether marginal or not, of Arabic 122 . They may 
best be regarded as non-Arabic insertions and hence may be pronounced with their original allophonic 



18 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



features though ortographically written in the nearest Arabic alphabetical symbols In eff ect *tanwe 
S he rSkcenSnt of foreign sounds by their Arabic near-equivalents we could be alkingab ou 
process of assimilation on a binary level of spelling and pronunciation or simply a phonemic change at the 
LveTof spelling but with the retention of the allophonic quality of the source language phoneme. 

In the loanword &p, the I v| sound of the original 'television' almost always shows transfer, i.e. ,t 
is pronounced [v] though written J in Arabic 123 . Yet, the analogical form 3 UL- , is not likely to show such a 
transfer since it corresponds to a native morphological pattern in line with Jt^ shirt'. This indicates that full 

nhonoloeical assimilation goes hand in hand with full morphological integration 124 . 

phonological assimi.at ^g ^ ^ ^^ ^^ ,„ ^^ ^ ^ , p| ^ as &n aHophone of 

Arabic v |b| in the environment of syllable -or word- final position in some borrowed lexical items such as: 



Chips 



Helicopter 



Captain 



express 



■>[ tl I ps]( the written form in Arabic is c 



-►[ he I loka pter ](j»£A») 



-►[kaeptin Ko^ 15 ) 



-►[ekspres o^-j+^ti 



To~Wunt for such exceptinal' cases, with respect to the general borrowing rules that stipulated 
| p | - 1 b I she quotes zughloul's 126 explanation which can be cast in the following notational rule: 
Ibl — lpl/[-vd] 

In other words the[+ vd] b becomes [- vd] before another[- vd] consonant Further she refers to 
Vennemln who "a^d that the process of assimilation is a weakening process and the fact that it occur, in 
XmSSSittoS is natural due to the universal strength relations", according to which, 'in syllabe- final 
p'ositt SS to observe processes and the fact that it occurs in syllable- final position we are l.ke.y 

t0 ^TE^ Thtntf Z have overlooked the fact that what she calls exceptionna. cases are 
but dialectal pronunciations of the orthographical form for the phoneme | v I. Ipl remains a gap in Arab.c 
proper and the occurrence of not only the |p| as an aHophone but also the ItJI, |gl, or even the |v| ,n the 
pronunciation of A^f^—^tr educated Arabs may tend to imitate the original source 
' sounds of loanwords.sometimes , the speakers may pronounce the word with a 

feedback from his previous knowledge of the source language 
2 Dialectal influences: some dialects may, out of sluggishness of speech, aspirate the 
v | b | while others may adopt wholesale loanwords with a reproduction of their 

Further, it •JoTpSS^ that one of the axamp.es given, namely' express' -^kspres]has 
been mistranscribed, since the actual pronunciation of the loanword of the loanform ,n Ambic : ,s ^ 
[eksibrss] with a break in the consonantal cluster. In such an enviroment the I b I cannot be made [- vd] by 
reason ofbeing surrounded by two [+vd] segments as Thornberg quite rightly observes a 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



it to be so 130 . 

Instead, what we have is a general assimilation rule whreby a |b| will be devoiced before[- vd] 
consonant, i.e. I b| — » I b| / -[- vd].this rule may optionally apply in the pronunciation of ^^t [tj ibs], cjl\£ 
[k aeptin] and any other word with similar consonantal sequence including native Arabic words such as ^j 
[dibs], 'date sirup'. 

Finally ,Thornberg notes that "since I n I is neither phonemic nor is it represented in the orthography 
of Arabic, it is changed to a nasal+ obstruent sequence ..." The articulation of the adapted form is something 
akin to n + jk but not quite an I rj I m . 

She cites some examples amongst which are: 
Boeing -> |Bocoing| 

Westinghouse -► I Westinghous I 

Tang — iTaenghl 

Exception of the Rule: 
Pingpong -+|bijrjb* :=) r)| 

Well, it seems that Thornberg was misled by the transliterated form of the above words since in 
actual speech £ ^ or even jjj are all pronounced as In I or to be exact |n|+ |g I regardless of the 
orthographical representation.Thus, for example, the word 'congress' is transliterated either a&^y^g or 
^jjjjS but almost always pronounced I *=> rjgres I or I *=> ngeresl . Another equally interesting example is 
DjSl*;i or alternatively l^j from French' Anglettere' lanlaterl meaning 'England'. Here, both the - and the 
J are pronounced as a I gl , yet, the I rj I is , to use Thornberg's term, separated into two segments: j+r ( or ^) 
with Sj-^ III infixed after the ^ (or d). Thus, the Arabic word would read I 'ingiltarahl. Once again, the 

exact pronunciation of the Arabicized from is determined by education and feedback from the speaker's 
knowledge of the source language. 

B. ASSIMILATION OF FOREIGN VOWELS AND DlPTHONGS: 

Both <>y&« and ^Ij^Jl make reference to the change of the vowel quality of loanwords upon their 
assimilation into Arabic.Thus.-L^*- states, " iS>>Jl \ iji h } u <"they (the Arabs) change the vowels" 132 , while 
JJ\y^s includes with other phonological modifications the substitution of a vowel by another as well as 
making a vowelized(consonant) vowellees and vice - versa 133 . 

In the following, it will be seen that, as with other segmental changes, the quality and length of foreign 
vowels is determined by way of approximation rather than by any sound phonological criteria. 

1. |*|-><>5» + f I am I oroUU-j la :n| (i.e. spreading) 
champagne I Japan I (French 134 ) -► i^u^ 
parlement Iparlamal (French) -+cAy. 

2. |ae|-»oy»UI: 

sandwich(English) -> u ax y .il- 



20 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 

3. |.|-*l«:l: 

bifteckl biftekl (French) ->4^ 

Etiquette I etiket I (French) ->^i«S*i! 

4. I e I —►a +_A)i I a : n I (i.e. spreading) : 
mannequin I mank 6 I (French) —£,\£#IL 

5. I 6il-^iJlla:l: 

batteria I bat earia I (Italian) -*o,Uv 

6. Ice I: 

6.1.1 «l-jb:l: 

docteur Idoktoerl (French) -»j^-» 

6.2lcel^l^:l: 

Coiffeur I kwaf ce r I (French) -^l^ 

7. |yl->il=:l: 

caricature I karikatyr I (French) -^IS^IS 
jupe 1 3 ypl (French) -+ v^ ( as in *S* J* ) 

8.UI->JI=> :l: 

douche I dull (French) -*Jiy 
doublagel dublaz I (French) ->£*y» 

■9.|u|^l=> :h 

rheumatism I nornwtizdm I (English) -+fjZ\*D 

10.10 l->Ji:l: 

De luxe I d01yx I I (French) -*^^ ( notice also I y I I ->j I => : I ) 

11.1 ^|-+j+jl 3 :nl : 

couponl Kup 5 i (French) -+i>»fi ( notice also the I u 1 1 ->J I => :l) 

12.1 3 | -5j-5|ll : 

I g 3 lba : b I (Ethiopic) - vM* '"'gown, dress' 

I ma : 3d 1 1 (Ethiopic) - ^ ,36 * teble ' 

Yet, according to ^1*1, if a I I is adjacent to a bilabial, it is changed to a l+i lul 137 : 
e.g. I khdbastl (Ethiopic) — j£ 138 'bread' 



AL LISSAN AL-ARABI 



I bdrh a :n I (Ethiopic) -ȣ>UjJ 139 'proof 

23. stress Shift : 

This type of change is incurred on loanwords in Arabic owing to: 
a-Mispronunciations in the absence of diacritics or as a result of a transliterational error on the part of the 



eg- 

etiquette(French) -»oaS^! while according to the French pronunciation etik t it should he.-f^i 

nylon(English) -» o^ /o^U instead of JLi or JL.U 

keramis (Greek) -^j* instead of .ulj 

varnish(English) -^J^jj instead of JZJ } 
Note that in most of the above examples the stress is shifted from the first to the secondly liable. 
Such erroneous pronounciations which could also be the result of mistransliterating the original source word 
are but part of the problem of 

"... how to respresent (foreign) pronunciation within the frame work of the Arabic script. For the 
dictionary user who knows (the foreign language) well, no pronunciation aid would be necessary. Such a user 
will recognize the word or pronouce it from his knowledge of its (original)spelling. But me dicttorfaty user 
who does not know (the foreign language) may wish to pronouce the loanword in a,rtcoghi2abte 
approximation of its native from... The loanword may be respelled in parentheses with the Arabic vtKvfefeand 
consonants that are closest to the foreign phonemes. . . uo ". 

b-The Influence of Arabic Stress Patterns: 

Arabic tends to place the primary stress on the next to the last syllabe.this ofter/resiults in accentuating or 
prolonging the stressed sound as it is summed up by ji* &[ in ty »SL»>Jl. 

" when short vowels are accentuated, they are changed to their corresponding long VoWels.Tmis a 
i*ii is turned into an ji, a s^-S into a _. and a i*J> into a j 141 " 



e.g. 2 

t'jji (Russian) — ► (i b^ 'early morning and evening' 

louvi(Greek)/*^y(Persian 142 ) -»*Luy 'bean' 

s^5 

Candela(Greek) -» J^jjj 

Nickel(English) -*■ J£u 

Chimos(Greek) -»■ ^yj^ 

Technology(English)/ technologie (French) -*L A .jy& 
Similary, the stress shift to the syllable before the last accounts for the doubling of the d in $& 
'store'(from Persian : 6 isi 143 ) and the j in £ ijj 'francolin(zool)'(from Persian : gj iu ) 

Some cases of stress shift may entail (medial) segmental deletion as in ju.j3 'foof tile' (from 



22 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



Greek : keramis)wherein the medial vowel'a' was dropped owing to transposing the stress to the i 1 1 
which as a result was turned to a _*| i I in ^j . And in the word jls-j / jia-, 'a village and its 
outskirts' '(from Persian: la-jj) thej was deleted as a result of the stress shift. 

Finally, in the word cjCj* 'scabbard'(from Persian:c,L-/ 145 ) we have a case of doubling the v and 
deleting the __> . 

2.4 SEGMENT AND FEATURE ADDITION : 

2.4.1. Declusterization by way of Epenthesis: 

in order to break consonant clusters, The Arabs interpose a vowel whether initially or 
medially(usually after the first consonant) or by prefixing an additional syllabe composed of the glottal 
stop c («>*) and a short vowel,thereby creating a new syllabe of the type CVC which is permissible in 
Arabic.Thus , for example, the consonantal string of CCC in words like 'ice cream' and 'express' is 
broken into CVCC in their arabicized counterparts ^J\ and o-^-Sl. Similarly, CC in Italian 'balcone' 
and French 'cadre' is broken into CVC in 'cgl> and jj!5. 

Intial consonant clusters also undergo epenthesis either by prefixing a S>* or inserting a vowel as in 
the following examples : 



£& (Syriac) 


— ► I _y£[ 146 ' crown, wreath' 


<U*(Persian) 


-►-JLJ*! 'myrobalan' 


Scala (Italian) 


->*JlL 'scaffold' 


Drama (English) 


-Uj,, 


Klima (Greek) 


— ►•JSJ 'region' 


Klirikos(Greek) 


—*^jjji£\ 'clerical' 


sfin(Greek) 


->£«i-! ,47 Wedge' 


Zmili(Greek) 


— »Ji*jl 'chisel' 


drachma(Greek) 


-W 


Spirito(Italian) 


-*yj*^\ 


Stade(French) 


-»jli_!'stadium' 


Anomalies 




studio(English) 


-+ >! jji-» 


flourescent(English) 


^c^U 


stereo(English) 


-^Hji^ 


styrofoam(English) 


-♦.jjj^li. 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



cement(English) ciment(french) 
yLuLiiajtPersian) 



•iiu*_! (Despite the declusterized sequence of the original). 
•0l*iftS H8 «thimble' 



2.4.2 to show inflection, a iy or a jr is sometimes added finally to loanwords ending in a vowel or a |h|. 
e.g.L> (Persian) -^^ 149 'chameleon' 

.iMPersian) ~^^iP> ' nme > depilatory agent' 

rhetine (Greek) 

sima(Greek) 

2.43 Final Nominal Suffix^ : 



— »~xulj'resin' 



Accademia (Italian)/ akademeia „>v j<; 
(Greek 151 ) ^ 

Bourgoise(french) -^^ 

kathedra(Greek) 



molochi(Greek) 
strategy(English) 

2.4.4. Relative / adjectival 4 : 

artois(french) 

Hidiv (Turkish)/^(Persian) 
Amarantacees (french) 



->i£\jSi\£ *cathedral'( notice the addition of the ly* in line 
with 2 above regarding final addition to show inflection). 
-^lii-jL l52 'jew's mallow' 

- +i **d3bi-'!(notice the prefixation of I in line with 1 above) 



2.4.5.In some loanwords from Syriac as well as other languages some segments are doubled probably 
to be modelled after existing morphological patterns. 



e.g. From Syriac: 
yj* 'ganto 154 ' 
jj^rf 'samouro' 
yLx, 'machalto' 
Others : 
JS iii- /j£i-(Persian) 

Dhorakinon (Greek) 
Scala (Italia) 

2.4.6 . Miscellanea : 

vljj(Persian) 



-►ii* 'paradise' (according to the the pattern iJUs ) 
-►j^*-. 'sable' (according to the pattern Jjii ) 
— »iU. 'spire' (according to the pattern il*i. ) 

-*Ji*-» 'lump of clay' (it is modelled after the pattern J^ii, to 

indicate large quantities) 

-►jijj 'peach' (according to the pattern JUi ) 

— *-4JLs— 'scaffold' ( according to the pattern SJlii) 

-"Vjj (singular : ^ )' mat, carpet' (the & was suffixed to the 
Persian loanword to form the plural from which the singular was 
derived by backformation). 



24 AL-L1SSAN AL-ARABI 



Kastanon(Greek) _► «.ui-S chestnut' (suffixing 'alif and S>* after deleting the 

final '- on- ) 
Abat - jour (french) _► Bjj»bi' lampshade' (suffixing the *- for the grammatical 

gender of feminine). 
Horasan (Turkish) -+iiL.I^* 'concrete' 

zemerek(Turkish) -^>j '"'spring' (by way of coalescent assimilation) 

zidan(Turkish) __> ^\^ 158 'prison cell' 

Mastro(Italian) _ ► jji^A, l59 'maestro' 

2.5. DELETION (ELISION) : 

Deletion is yet another morphophonemic process that is administered to loanwords.To begin with, 
o^h remarks that, in Arabic, when two t's i. e. cu come in succession, one of them may optionally be 
deleted 160 . In other words, to cite Bakalla's national formula : 

o->/ # o (opt 161 ) 

e.g. uj^ 2 ->o>*l£ 

Further, in his discussion of Arabicized loanwords,****- employs the word Ji» '"'deletion' to 
describe one of the changes that are applied to borrowed lexical items.^JI^JI , on the other hand, uses the 
expression j^ aL* 163 i.e. 'the omission of a letter' to describe more or less the same process of deleting a 
segment or more form the original source from. Such changes, according to J,JS\, are attributed to the 
Arabs' keeness to maintain unstrained and easy pronunciation of loanwords by omitting some of their sounds 

^^In the course of our study, we have noticed that deletion may involve initial, medial or final 
segments or syllables and may even include the clipping of a part of a word or one member of a compound. 
In addition, some cases of deletion are language-specific and in effect are more regular than others. 

1. Initial Segment/Syllable deletion : 

Historia (Greek) -» Bjjt-t 'myth' 

Musandira (Turkish) -► Bj^- 165 'loft* 
D U*.<-. i (Persian) -» oW=^ "* 'thimble' 

ila-jlw (Persian) -> 6 H-> 167 'hospital' 

2. Medial segment/Syllable deletion : 

Chabbat (Hebrew) - **- "" 'Saturday' 
Ounguiya (Greek) -* <Jji 'ounce' 
Strata(Greek) -» J»lj- 'way, path' 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 

j*jjb (Persian) 
yUjjj (Persian) 
4^ (Persian) 
Jirfji (Persian) 



-»j»jU 1W 'pathological globules in animals' 

— iMj ™ 'proof 

-» #ju 'glamour* 

-+£-> 171 'league, parasang' 



jj»yj (Persian)-* jykji 'stout boy' 
jlji^ (Persian) ->jl^ii m 'fodder remains (livestock)' 
3. Final Segment/Syllable Deletion : 



Fallopian (English)/Fallopio(Italian) -> vi 11 * 
Axis(English) —■ y-Sl 



oi-ui (Persian) 


-^uAi. 174 'fishhook' 


4i-L4i (Persian 


) ->Li; '"'starch' 


j,Uj_P (Persian^ 


) — o^ 'backgammon' 


VGUAGE SPECIFIC DELETION : 


a. Syriac : 




Generally speaking, final j |=>:| in loanwords of a Syriac origin is omitted upon their assimilation 


into Arabic. 




e.g. y^\ 


— >JjK| 'crown, diadem' 176 


y*s 


— »icj3 'canal' 


^ 


— >1uJj 'pupil' 


yijt* 


-+ k = JJL> jL* 'omnipotence, tyranny' 


JW J 


— »jjj 'monastery' 


yyj 


— *&y.j 'customer 1 


jj*-*- 


-^ji^i-> 'broker 1 


JUJ*- 


— *j>*- 'sable' 


SJlJ 3 ^ 


-^jjj>ji 'thrush, blackbird* 


yy.j* 


—tOyjz 'down payment' 


y* 


— >o\j3 'a square measure = 4200.833m 2 ' 



b. Greek and Latin : 

In like manner, final segments' syllables in loanwords of Greek or Latin origin are deleted upon their 
being Arabicised. 
e.g. Words of Greek Origin: 



26 AL-LtSSAN AL-ARABI 



archipelaghos 


— > Jjjjfcji 1 "'archipelago' 


fanarion 


->jU3 l78 'lighthouse' 


fellinos 


-►^'cork' 


kalopolion 


-»vJlJ 179, mold, model' 


keramis 


— ♦jLMjj'rooftile' 


koukoumion 


— ►»i*S 180 'a bulgy, long-necked bottle' 


manganon 


— >,3 i ^i«'mangoner 


narkissos 


— ► L ^» > ; 181 'narcissus' 


patrikios 


^j^'penguin' 


paximathi 


-+h\*~*j'msk' 


thirayakos 


--»jljjj'potion' 


valsamon 


-►^J^'balsam* 


etion of Medial and Final Syllable : 


Epi scopus 


-» ^JlJ l83 'bishop' 


Words of Latin Origw 


I: 


Canalis 


— >-»Uior JUS 'canal' 


Centenarium 


— >jLks5'kantar' 


Corphinus 


-»;U3 184 'large basket' 


Denarius 


— ►jli.ydinar' 


Horreum 


-^""'granary' 


Marmaroon 


-^•""Snarble* 


palatium 


— >L5l;'court' 



2.6. CLIPPING OF A WHOLE PART OF A WORD OR A MEMBER OF A COMPOUND 

.j ejjjj (Persian) —^■Hji 'mail' 

jxijj (Persian) -►jji'^backgammon' 

^bLojIj^ (Persian) -^13*' "''nightingale' 

hydrakele (Greek) -» ajjior iiji 19 ° (notice that the original loanform was dissected into 

two parts each of which was Arabicized individually as a full word, yet, both mean 'hernia'). 

Sometimes, clipping can take the form of assimilation (usually in syllable final position across word 
boundaries) „.,„.. 

e.g. baking powder -* jjUljStj [b kinbawder] 



AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



2.7. DISSIMILATION : 



When two adjacent sounds sound alike, one is altered by changing its feature value in order to 
preserve the contrast between otherwise homorganic or semi-homorganic segments. Sometimes, this takes 
the form of addition 'epenthesis' or deletion. 

e.g. uWjj (Persian) — ► objL»j 'centurian' (Deletion of _.) 
j*jjLj (Persian) — ► j»jb 'bezoar' (Deletion of j) 

2.8. Metathesis : 

Arabicization may also involve metathesis, i.e. transposing phonemes or segments from one place to 
another. 
From Persian : 

ay] jb — *cy_jj)j\j m 'hand-m\' 



Jy 


-^'"•buckef 


J**o 


— tjjjla-'^chain, track for a tank, caterpillar... etc. 


j'v 


— ♦3jl J _ 194 'pavilion, large tent' 


JL^ 


^j> 195 'pi]low' 


From Hebrew : 




b^L* 


— ^l^L. "Sprayers' 


^lj>> 


— ►o > JL>. 197, proper name' 


From Syriac : 




o*"-**! 


— >.k^-.|'favoured juice' 


From Greek : 




eparchia 


— ► *j^jji l98, parish, bishopric' 


pnecoquus 


— &ji '"'plum' 


litra 


— *• Jtj'a unit of weight of variant equivalance : ir 


From Turkish : 




eretsane 


— » *A-j> 20 ° 'arsenal' 


frenlemek 


-» *Uj 201 'brake' 


manovara 


— » Sj^Ui 202 'manceuvre' 


2.9 Compounding 





Examples of compounding are few (see under 2.1). Most of such words are the result of 
transliterating the pronunciation of two SL components in fast speech. 






(Persian) 
(Persian) 



*k** 



'electricity' 

'a large water pot' 



28 AL-LISSAN AL-ARABI 



J>J$ bjj» 


(Persian) 


^ 


tA>*3->* 


'ear lobe' 


pay- 


(Persian) 


-> 


^*^ 


'dagger' 


■J<*& 


(Persian) 


- 


JJLSJS 


'laddie' 


Roba Vecckia 


(Italian) 


- 


W«, 


'antiques' 


Ji>»fj 


(Persian) 


- 


jO*J 


'bitter cold' 


js.iii- 


(Persian) 


-> 


J*~ 


'lumps of clay' 



But we may notice a multitude of partial translations of compounds, usually in scientific register, 
e.g. Arsenide - * ao^jj 

Acide hydro ferrique — ► .iL^a^a/ji yi**- 

Tetrabromide — * ju*^ ^*Ijj 

And the awkward 'ideology' -» L^j^i 

2.10 . REMODELLING IN ACCORDANCE WITH ARABIC MORPHOLOGICAL PARADIGMS: 

The earliest reference made to remodelling loanwords to conform with Arabic word patterns comes 
from omjl.. .-ilaS 

"The Arabs change those foreign words which are absolutely incongruous with their own, 
sometimes assimilating them into the structure of their words, and sometimes not. As for 
that which they assimilate into their forms (i.e. morphological patterns), There is ^ 
according to ^ ^Jh according to ^L 4 ^Uj and J±j according to ^Uo t( jU-j 
according to jUl ^p* according to &j> i VJ £ according to Ji> ^T according to 
JjiU ijjUl according tOjilAc and jlx-j according to y*U»ji" 
Thus, according to ^^ who holds a somewhat liberal view, remodelling loanwords is not 
mandatory though they may be subject to other phonological or morphological modifications, 

"Often they leave a noun unchanged when its letters are like theirs, be its structure Arabic or 

not, as in the cases of U> c f > and fjS They may change a letter which does not exist in 

Arabic leaving the original Persian structure of the word intact as in *J (from ^v) >■ 

(from j^TorjSOandjo^fromjoS)" 

In short, o^u, was intersted in describing and analysing loanwords rather than prescribing any rules 

for their incorporation into the patterns of Arabic. To him, v > is a term which describes both analogical 

and non-analogical Arabicization . 

Other philologists who maintained an approach similar to that of *,*- include Sx~ *l ^y. i»\ 

^UiJland ^.Ji^l. The latter, while examining segmental changes, reiterates the stance adopted earlier 

by o^ by "using similar wordings • they may transform the patterns of Persian words into Arabic